Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-Antarctica

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

Antarctica

Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri
Common name: Emperor penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri
Common name: Emperor penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Aptendytes patagonicus
Common name: King penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica and surrounding islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis antarcticus
Common name: Chinstrap penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctic oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis adeliae
Common name: Adelie penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas around Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Islands surrounding Antarctica

Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome
Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South Atlantic
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome
Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South Atlantic
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes schlegeli
Common name: Royal penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast Indian Ocean
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes sclateri
Common name: Erect-crested penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast New Zealand islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Megadyptes antipodes
Common name: Yellow-eyed penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast New Zealand and islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis papua
Common name: Gentoo penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas between South America and Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

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