Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-Europe and Mediterranean Sea

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds

Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela furo
Common name: Domesticated Ferret
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Hamsters
Classification: Family: Cricetidae – Subfamily: Cricetinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Ram or male sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Black Faced Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Valais Blacknose Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus
Common name: Spanish Fighting Bull (Toro Bravo)
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Spain, Portugal,France, and Latin America (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Gray Andalusian Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Spain)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Black Shire Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Percheron Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (France) and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Haflinger Mare (Domesticated)
Classifacation: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Austria and Italy)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Appaloosa Horse Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Friesian Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Netherlands)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Clydesdale (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Genus and species: Ovibos moschatus
Common name: Muskox or Musk Ox
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Alasaka, Northwest Territories, Yukon, norway, Sweden, and Siberia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervus elaphus
Common name: Red deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Capreolus capreolus
Common name: Roe deer
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe to Middle East
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus 
Common name: Grey Wolf or Gray Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes vulpes
Common name: Red Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern Hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Meles meles
Common name: European badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Recent
Range: Europe
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gulo gulo
Common name: Wolverine
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Lutra
Common name: Otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Eurasian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Sciurus vulgaris
Common name: Eurasian red squirrel
Classification: Family: Sciurus
Time: Holocene
Range: Asia and Europe
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Erinaceus europaeus
Common name: European hedgehog
Classification: Family: Erinaceidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Strix aluco
Common name: Tawny Owl, Brown owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Europe and western Siberia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore (beetles, earthworms, rodents, small rabbits, and birds)
Genus and species: Bubo scandiacus
Common name: Snowy owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe, and Russia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Preteus anguinus
Common name: Olm Salamander/Cave Salamander
Classification: Order: Urodela – Family: Proteidae
Range: Caves in the Dinaric Alps
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore

Mediterranean Sea

Genus and species: Etmopterus spinax
Common name: Angular roughshark
Classification: Order: Squaliformes – Family: Oxynotidae
Range: African west coast, European west coast, and Mediterranean Sea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Etmopterus spinax
Common name: Velvet belly lanternshark
Classification: Order: Squaliformes – Family: Etmopteridae
Range: South Africa, Atlantic Ocean , and Mediterranean Sea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Thunnus thunnus thynnus
Common name: Atlantic bluefun tuna or northern bluefin tuna
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Scombriformes – Family: Scombridae
Range: Western and eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, and formerly Black Sea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut (Mastodon) “breast tooth” 
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore

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