Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-North America and Arctic

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage of North America

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds

Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela furo
Common name: Domesticated Ferret
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Erinaceus europaeus
Common name: European hedgehog
Classification: Family: Erinaceidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Hamsters
Classification: Family: Cricetidae – Subfamily: Cricetinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Ram or male sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Black Faced Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Valais Blacknose Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Texas Longhorn Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus
Common name: Spanish Fighting Bull (Toro Bravo)
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Spain, Portugal,France, and Latin America (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Hybrid Bos (primigenius) taurus/indicus
Common name: American Brahman
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia, Brazil, and United States (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus africanus
Common name: Ankole Cattle
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae, Subfamily: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Haflinger Mare (Domesticated)
Classifacation: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Austria and Italy)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Appaloosa Horse Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Friesian Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Netherlands)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Clydesdale (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Percheron Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (France) and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Gray Andalusian Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Spain)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Black Shire Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Originally from Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Artic (North Pole) and west coast

Genus and species: Ursus maritimus
Common name: Polar Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Artic Circle
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus arctos
Common name: Arctic Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North Polar Region
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes lagopus
Common name: Arctic Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Artic
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Bubo scandiacus
Common name: Snowy owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe, and Russia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Delphinapterus leucas
Common name: Beluga Cow and Calf
Classification: Family: Monodontidae
Time: Quaternary to Holocene
Range: Artic Ocean
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Orcinus orca
Common name: Killer whale
Classification: Family: Delphinidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Phoca vitulina
Common name: Harbor (common) Seal
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern seas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Odobenus rosmarus
Common name: Male Pacific walrus
Classification: Family: Odobenidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Pole surrounding oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Zalophus californianus
Common name: Californian Sea Lion
Classification: Family: Otariidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North American west coast
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Enhydra lutris
Common name: Sea otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean
Diet: Carnivore (fsea urchins, various mollusks, crustaceans, and fish)

North American: Mountains

Genus and species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Common name: Bald Eagle
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, and species: Meleagris gallopavo
Common name: Turkey
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianida – Subfamily: Phasianinae – Tribe: Meleagridini
Range: North America
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Branta canadensis
Common name: Canada Goose
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Anas platyrhynchos
Common name: Mallard
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: Northern hemisphere
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose (bull)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus
Common name: Reindeer or Caribou
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervinae canadensis
Common name: Elk
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus
Common name: White-tailed deer (Dow and Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North, Central and northern South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Oreamnos americanus
Common name: Mountain goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Ursus arctos
Common name: Grizzly Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northwest North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ursus americanus
Common name: American Black Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Canus latrans
Common name: Coyote
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gulo gulo
Common name: Wolverine
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mephitis mephitis
Common name: Striped Skunk
Classification: Family: Mephitidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Lynx rufus
Common name: Bobcat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Erethizon dorsatum
Common name: Porcupine
Classification: Family: Mylagaulidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore (twigs, roots, berries, leaves, nuts, and certain insects)
Genus and species: Taxidea taxus
Common name: North American badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Sates, Northern Mexico, South Central Canada
Diet: Carnivore (mice squirrels, and groundhogs)
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)
Genus: Lutra canadensis
Common name: North American river otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore (fish, salamander, frogs, freshwater clams, mussels, turtles, crayfich, perch, and catfish)
Genus and species: Ovibos moschatus
Common name: Muskox or Musk Ox
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Alasaka, Northwest Territories, Yukon, norway, Sweden, and Siberia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiformes – Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

North American: Great plains

Genus and species: Bison bison
Common name: Bison
Specimen: Bull, Cow, and Calf
Classification: Subfamily: Bovinae – Subtribe: Bovina
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore (Ruminants)
Genus and species: Antilocapra americana
Common name: Pronghorn
Classification: Subfamily: Antilocaprini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Western North American
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus
Common name: White-tailed deer (Dow and Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North, Central and northern South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Mephitis mephitis
Common name: Striped Skunk
Classification: Family: Mephitidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lynx rufus
Common name: Bobcat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Canus latrans
Common name: Coyote
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Cynomys sp.
Common name: Praire dog
Classification: Family: Sciuridae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Common name: Bald Eagle
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, and species: Meleagris gallopavo
Common name: Turkey
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianida – Subfamily: Phasianinae – Tribe: Meleagridini
Range: North America
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Branta canadensis
Common name: Canada Goose
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ardea herodias
Common name: Great Blue Heron
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Ardeidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Taxidea taxus
Common name: North American badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Sates, Northern Mexico, South Central Canada
Diet: Carnivore (mice squirrels, and groundhogs)
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)
Genus: Lutra canadensis
Common name: North American river otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore (fish, salamander, frogs, freshwater clams, mussels, turtles, crayfich, perch, and catfish)
Genus and species: Erethizon dorsatum
Common name: Porcupine
Classification: Family: Mylagaulidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore (twigs, roots, berries, leaves, nuts, and certain insects)
Genus and species: Castor canadensis
Common name: North American beaver
Classification: Family: Castoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore

North American: Great Lakes

Genus and species: Lithobates pipoens
Common name: Northern leopard frog
Classification: Family: Ranidae
Range: Canada and United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Lithobates catesbeianus
Common name: American bullfrog
Classification: Family: Ranidae
Range: Eastern North America
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Pseudotriton ruber
Common name: Red Salamander
Classification: Family: Plethodontidae
Range: Eastern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Necturus maculosus
Common name: Mudpuppy
Classification: Family: Necturus
Range: Central United States and Southern Canada
Time: Paleocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Nerodia sipedon insularum
Common name: Lake Erie Water Snake
Classification: Family: Colubridae
Range: Small islands on the west coast of Lake Erie, North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Perca flavescens
Common name: Yellow Perch
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Percidae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Acipenser fulvescens
Common name: Lake Sturgeon
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Acipenseriformes – Family: Acipenseridae
Range: Great Lakes, North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiforme s- Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ardea herodias
Common name: Great Blue Heron
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Ardeidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Branta canadensis
Common name: Canada Goose
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Taxidea taxus
Common name: North American badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Sates, Northern Mexico, South Central Canada
Diet: Carnivore (mice squirrels, and groundhogs)
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)
Genus: Lutra canadensis
Common name: North American river otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore (fish, salamander, frogs, freshwater clams, mussels, turtles, crayfich, perch, and catfish)
Genus and species: Erethizon dorsatum
Common name: Porcupine
Classification: Family: Mylagaulidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore (twigs, roots, berries, leaves, nuts, and certain insects)
Genus and species: Castor canadensis
Common name: North American beaver
Classification: Family: Castoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Myotis lucifugus
Common name: Little brown bat
Classification: Family: Vespertilionidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Lynx canadensis
Common name: Canadain lynx
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Canada and Alaska
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes vulpes
Common name: Red Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern Hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore

North American: Southwest

Genus and species: Dasypus novemcinctus
Common name: Nine-banned armadillo
Classification: Family: Dasypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North, Central, and  South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Lepus sp.
Common name: Hare
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North American
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu
Common name: Collared peccary
Classification: Family: Tayassuidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Leopardus pardalis
Common name: Ocelot
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and South Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Euderma maculatum
Common name: Spotted bat
Classification: Family: Vespertilionidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Western north America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Phrynosoma sp.
Common name: Horny toads or horntoads
Classification: Family: Phrynosomaidae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Heloderma suspectum
Common names: Gila monster
Classification: Family: Helodermidae
Range: American Southwest
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genera: Crotalinae and Sistrurus
Common name: Rattle snake
Classification: Family: Viperidae – Subfamily Crotalinae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene
Genus and species: Gymnogyps californianus 
Common name: California condor
Classification: Order: Cathartiformes – Family: Cathartidae
Range: California, Arizona, Utah and northern Mexico Baja
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiformes – Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Geococcyx californianus
Common name: Greater Roadrunner
Classification: Order: Cuculiformes – Family: Cuculidae – Subfamily: Neomorphinae
Range: Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore

North American: Gulf Coast

Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Larus smithsonianus
Common name: Herring Gull
Classification: Order: Charadriiformes – Family: Laridae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Common name: American white pelican
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Pelecanus
Range: North America and Central America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Common name: Bald Eagle
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, and species: Meleagris gallopavo
Common name: Turkey
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianida – Subfamily: Phasianinae – Tribe: Meleagridini
Range: North America
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiforme s- Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Canus latrans
Common name: Coyote
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Procyon lotor
Common name: Raccoon
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Mephitis mephitis
Common name: Striped Skunk
Classification: Family: Mephitidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus
Common name: White-tailed deer (Dow and Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North, Central and northern South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Lutra canadensis
Common name: North American river otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore (fish, salamander, frogs, freshwater clams, mussels, turtles, crayfich, perch, and catfish)
Genus and species: Castor canadensis
Common name: North American beaver
Classification: Family: Castoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Macrochelys sp.
Common name: “Alligator snapping turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira Family: Chelydridae
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Southeastern United States
Time period: Miocene to Holocene
Name and species: Chelydra serpentina
Common name: “Common snapping turtles”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Family: Chelydridae
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Eastern and non-coastal central North America
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Graptemys sp.
Common name: “Sawback turtles or Map turtles”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Family: Emydidae – Subfamily: Deirochelyinae
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Eastern North America and Gulf Coast
Time period: Pleistocene to Holocene
Name and species: Graptemys flavimaculata.
Common name: “Yellow-blotched map turtle or yellow-blotched sawback”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – Family: Emydidae 
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Southern United States and Gulf Coast
Time period: Holocene
Common Name: Manatee (sea cows)
Genus: Trichechus (Linnaeus 1758)
Species: T. inunguis (Amazonian manatee), T. manatus (West Indian manatee).
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft)
Wieght: 590 kilograms (1,3000 lb)
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Agkistrodon piscivorus
Common name: Cottonmouth, Water Moccasin, Swamp Moccasin, Black Moccasin, and Viper
Classification: Family: Viperidae
Range: Southeast United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Alligator mississippiensis
Common Name: American alligator
Named by: Daudin – 1802
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Alligatoridae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Locality:  Southeast United States/Gulf Coast
Size: Males 3.4 to 4.8 m (11.2 to 15.7 ft), Femailes 2.6 to 3 m (8.5 to 9.8 ft)
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pseudotriton ruber
Common name: Red Salamander
Classification: Family: Plethodontidae
Range: Eastern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lithobates catesbeianus
Common name: American bullfrog
Classification: Family: Ranidae
Range: Eastern North America
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut (Mastodon) “breast tooth” 
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore

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