Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-South America and Galapagos

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds

Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela furo
Common name: Domesticated Ferret
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Erinaceus europaeus
Common name: European hedgehog
Classification: Family: Erinaceidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Hamsters
Classification: Family: Cricetidae – Subfamily: Cricetinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus
Common name: Spanish Fighting Bull (Toro Bravo)
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Spain, Portugal,France, and Latin America (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Hybrid Bos (primigenius) taurus/indicus
Common name: American Brahman
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia, Brazil, and United States (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Central America

Genus and species: Panthera onca
Common name: Jaguar
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Leopardus pardalis
Common name: Ocelot
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and South Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dasypus novemcinctus
Common name: Nine-banned armadillo
Classification: Family: Dasypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North, Central, and  South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Nasua narica
Common name: Coatimundi and Spanish: antoon, gato, solo, pizote, and tejon
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and Northern South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu
Common name: Collared peccary
Classification: Family: Tayassuidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Common name: American white pelican
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Pelecanus
Range: North America and Central America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Amazonia viridigenalis
Common name: Red-crowned amazon
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Western central Mexico
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: TBD
Common name: Hummingbirds
Classification: Order: Apodiformes – Family: Trochilidae
Range: Global (tropical regions)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Hibiscus flower
Genus  and species: Ramphastos sulfuratus
Common name: Keel-billed toucan
Classification: Order: Piciformes – Family: Ramphastidae
Range: Central American and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pharomachrus mocinno
Common name: Resplendent quetzal
Classification: Order: Trogoniformes – Family: Trognidae
Range: Central American
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gymnogyps californianus 
Common name: California condor
Classification: Order: Cathartiformes – Family: Cathartidae
Range: California, Arizona, Utah and northern Mexico Baja
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiforme s- Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Atelopus zeteki
Common name: Panamanian golden frog, cerro campana stubfoot toad
Classification: Family: Bufonidae
Range: Panama
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eleutherodactylus jasperi
Common name: Golden coqui
Classification: Family: Eleutherodactylidae
Range: Puerto Rico (extinct)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Ceratophrys ornata
Common name: Blue Argentine horned frog
Classification: Family: Ceratophyidae
Range: Argentina, Uryuay, and Brazil
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Dendrobaes auratus
Common name: Green and black poison dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Central America and Columbia
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore (mites and insects)
Genus and species: Oophaga pumilio
Common name: Strawberry poison-dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Central America
Time: Holocene 
Diet:
Insectivore
Genus and species: Agalychnis callidryas
Common name: Red-eyed tree frog
Classification: Family: Phyllomedusidae
Range: Central America (Neotropical rainforest)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Ambystoma mexicanum
Common name: Leucistic axolot/Mexican Salamander
Classification: Order: Urodela – Family: Ambystomatidae
Range: Mexico
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Iguana iguana
Common name: Green iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Central and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene

Amazon Rainforest

Genus and species: Bradypus tridactylus
Common name: Three-toed sloths
Classification: Family: Bradypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Choloepus hoffmanni
Common name: Two-toed sloths
Classification: Family: Choloepodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Common name: Giant anteater
Classification: Family: Myrmecophagidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Central and South America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Dasypus novemcinctus
Common name: Nine-banned armadillo
Classification: Family: Dasypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North, Central, and  South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Priodontes maximus
Common name: Giant armadillo
Classification: Family: Chlamyphoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Panthera onca
Common name: Jaguar
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Leopardus pardalis
Common name: Ocelot
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and South Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Nasua nasua
Common name: South American Coati or Ring-tailed Coati
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America (Columbia to Argentina)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
Common name: Capybara
Classification: Family: Caviidae
Time: Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Macaca silenus
Common name: Spider monkey
Classification: Family: Atelidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Central and South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Saimiri sciureus
Common name: Common squirrel monkey
Classification: Family: Cebidae
Time: Miocene (Laventan) to Holocene
Location: Northern South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Saimiri vanzolinii
Common name: Black squirrel monkey
Classification:Family: Cebidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Small endangered population in northern Brazil
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Lagothrix lagothricha
Common name:
Common woolly monkey
Classification: Family:
Atelidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Northwestern Central South America
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Cebus cuscinus
Common name:
Shock-headed capuchin
Classification: Family:
Cebidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Upper Amazon Basin, montane forests of western Andes Mountains
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Leontopithecus rosalia
Common name:
Golden lion tamarin
Classification: Family:
Callitrichidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Atlantic coastal forest, Brazil
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus ruber
Common name: Scarlet ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Northern and one western South American coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ara ararauna
Common name: Blue-and-yellow macaw
Classification:Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Northern South America 
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus and species: Ara chloropterus
Common name: Red-and-green macaw
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus  and species: Ramphastos sulfuratus
Common name: Keel-billed toucan
Classification: Order: Piciformes – Family: Ramphastidae
Range: Central American and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: TBD
Common name: Hummingbirds
Classification: Order: Apodiformes – Family: Trochilidae
Range: Global (tropical regions)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Hibiscus flower
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiforme s- Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Name and species: Chelus fimbriata.
Common name: “Mata mata”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Pleurodira – Family: Chelidae 
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Amazon and Orinoco basin, South America
Time period: Pliocene to Holocene
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene
Genus and species: Iguana iguana
Common name: Green iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Central and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Corallus caninus
Common name:
Emerald tree boa
Classification:
Family: Boidae
Range:
South American
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus: Grammostola pulchra
Common name:
Brazilian Black Tarantula
Classification: Order: Araneae – Infraorder: Mygalomorphae – Family: Theraphosidae
Time: Holocene
Locality:
South America
Genus, species, and subspecies: Dendrobates tinctorius azureus
Common name: Blue poison dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Sipaliwini Savanna, Southern Suriname of northern Brazil
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Dendrobaes auratus
Common name: Green and black poison dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Central America and Columbia
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore (mites and insects)
Genus and species: Ceratophrys ornata
Common name: Blue Argentine horned frog
Classification: Family: Ceratophyidae
Range: Argentina, Uryuay, and Brazil
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore

Plains and Grasslands

Genus and species: Panthera onca
Common name: Jaguar
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Leopardus pardalis
Common name: Ocelot
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and South Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Chrysocyon brachyurus
Common name: Maned Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Nasua nasua
Common name: South American Coati or Ring-tailed Coati
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America (Colimbia to Argentina)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Common name: Giant anteater
Classification: Family: Myrmecophagidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Central and South America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Dasypus novemcinctus
Common name: Nine-banned armadillo
Classification: Family: Dasypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North, Central, and  South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Priodontes maximus
Common name: Giant armadillo
Classification: Family: Chlamyphoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
Common name: Capybara
Classification: Family: Caviidae
Time: Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene

Andes Mountains and west coast

Genus and species: Lama glama
Common name: Lama
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Western South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Vicugna pacos
Common name: Alpaca
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central western South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu
Common name: Collared peccary
Classification: Family: Tayassuidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus humboldti
Common name: Humboldt penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: West coast of South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Caribbean Islands

Common Name: Manatee (sea cows)
Genus: Trichechus (Linnaeus 1758)
Species: T. inunguis (Amazonian manatee), T. manatus (West Indian manatee).
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft)
Wieght: 590 kilograms (1,3000 lb)
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus ruber
Common name: Scarlet ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Northern and one western South American coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Iguana iguana
Common name: Green iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Central and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Galapagos Islands

Genus and species: Buteo galapagoensis
Common name: Galapagos hawk
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: Galapagos islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sula suka
Common name: Red-footed booby
Classification:
Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae
Range:
Central Indian, Pacific and south-central Atlantic Oceans
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Sula nebouxii
Common name: Blue-footed booby
Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae
Range: Galapagos Islands, west coast Mexico and northwest coast of South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Fregata minor
Common name: Great frigatebird
Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Fregatidae
Range: Most tropical oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus mendiculus
Common name: Galapagos penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Galapagos Islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Conolophus subcristatus
Common name: Galapagos land iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Galapagos Islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Amblyrhynchus cristatus
Common name: Galapagos marine iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Galapagos Islands 
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Chelonia mydas
Common name: “Green sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Chelonioidea – ‬Family: Cheloniinae – Subfamily: Cheloniinae
Diet: Juveniles are carnivores, adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Chelonoidis niger
Common name: “Galapagos tortoise”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Galapagos Islands
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Chelonoidis niger
Common name: “Galapagos tortoise”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Galapagos Islands
Time period: Holocene
Genus and species: Arctocephalus pusillus
Common name: Fur Seal
Classification: Family: Otariidae  Subfamily: Arctocephalinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Carcharhinus galapegensis
Common name: Galapagos shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Carcharhinidae
Range: Tropical ocean regions
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Common name: Crab (dorsal)
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab (ventral)
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene

South Atlantic Islands 

Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome
Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South Atlantic
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome
Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South Atlantic
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis antarcticus
Common name: Chinstrap penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctic oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis papua
Common name: Gentoo penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas between South America and Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis adeliae
Common name: Adelie penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas around Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

North American Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Genus and species: Megatherium americanum
Name meaning: Large beast from America
Classification: Family: Megatherium
Time: Early Pliocene to Early Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Megatherium americanum
Name meaning: Large beast from America
Classification: Family: Megatherium
Time: Early Pliocene to Early Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Megatherium americanum
Name meaning: Large beast from America
Classification: Family: Megatherium
Time: Early Pliocene to Early Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Doedicurus clavicaudatus
Common name: Giant armodilla
Classification: Family: Glyptodontinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut (Mastodon) “breast tooth” 
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore

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