Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch

(11,650 years before the present to today)

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds Meghalayan Stage 0.0042 to 0 million years ago

Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela furo
Common name: Domesticated Ferret
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Hamsters
Classification: Family: Cricetidae – Subfamily: Cricetinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Erinaceus europaeus
Common name: European hedgehog
Classification: Family: Erinaceidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus
Common name: Spanish Fighting Bull (Toro Bravo)
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Spain, Portugal,France, and Latin America (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Hybrid Bos (primigenius) taurus/indicus
Common name: American Brahman
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia, Brazil, and United States (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus africanus
Common name: Ankole Cattle
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae, Subfamily: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Texas Longhorn Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Ram or male sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Black Faced Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Valais Blacknose Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Haflinger Mare (Domesticated)
Classifacation: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Austria and Italy)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Appaloosa Horse Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Friesian Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Netherlands)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Percheron Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (France) and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Gray Andalusian Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Spain)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Black Shire Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Clydesdale (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore

The Meghalayan is focused on domesticated animal breeds, but every species depicted in the Northgrippian can also be found at present in the Meghalayan.

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

North American Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Artic (North Pole)

Genus and species: Ursus maritimus
Common name: Polar Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Artic Circle
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus arctos
Common name: Arctic Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North Polar Region
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes lagopus
Common name: Arctic Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Artic
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Bubo scandiacus
Common name: Snowy owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe, and Russia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Delphinapterus leucas
Common name: Beluga Cow and Calf
Classification: Family: Monodontidae
Time: Quaternary to Holocene
Range: Artic Ocean
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Orcinus orca
Common name: Killer whale
Classification: Family: Delphinidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Odobenus rosmarus
Common name: Male Pacific walrus
Classification: Family: Odobenidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Pole surrounding oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Phoca vitulina
Common name: Harbor (common) Seal
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern seas
Diet: Carnivore

Pacific Coast

Name and species: Dermochelys coriacea
Common name: “Leatherback sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – ‬Family: Dermochelyidae
Diet: Sea jellies and cephalopods
Known locations: Global
Time period: Holocene
Genus and species: Zalophus californianus
Common name: Californian Sea Lion
Classification: Family: Otariidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North American west coast
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Orcinus orca
Common name: Killer whale
Classification: Family: Delphinidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Physeter macrocephalus
Common name: Sperm whales
Classification: Family: Physeteridae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eschrichtius robustus
Common name: Gray whale
Classification: Family: Eschrichtiidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North American west coast northwest Asian coast
Diet: Filter Feeders
Genus and species: Megaptera novaeangliae
Common name: Humpback whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Balaenoptera borealis
Common name: Sei whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Balaenoptera musculus
Common name: Blue whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder

Great plains

Genus and species: Bison bison
Common name: Bison
Specimen: Bull, Cow, and Calf
Classification: Subfamily: Bovinae – Subtribe: Bovina
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore (Ruminants)
Genus and species: Antilocapra americana
Common name: Pronghorn
Classification: Subfamily: Antilocaprini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Western North American
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Cynomys sp.
Common name: Praire dog
Classification: Family: Sciuridae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore

Mountains

Genus and species: Ursus arctos
Common name: Grizzly Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northwest North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ursus americanus
Common name: American Black Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Canus latrans
Common name: Coyote
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lynx rufus
Common name: Bobcat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gulo gulo
Common name: Wolverine
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Anas platyrhynchos
Common name: Mallard
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: Northern hemisphere
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose (bull)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus
Common name: Reindeer or Caribou
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervinae canadensis
Common name: Elk
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Oreamnos americanus
Common name: Mountain goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore

Great Lakes

Genus and species: Castor canadensis
Common name: North American beaver
Classification: Family: Castoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Lynx canadensis
Common name: Canadain lynx
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Canada and Alaska
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes vulpes
Common name: Red Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern Hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Myotis lucifugus
Common name: Little brown bat
Classification: Family: Vespertilionidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Necturus maculosus
Common name: Mudpuppy
Classification: Family: Necturus
Range: Central United States and Southern Canada
Time: Paleocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Nerodia sipedon insularum
Common name: Lake Erie Water Snake
Classification: Family: Colubridae
Range: Small islands on the west coast of Lake Erie, North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Branta canadensis
Common name: Canada Goose
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ardea herodias
Common name: Great Blue Heron
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Ardeidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Perca flavescens
Common name: Yellow Perch
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Percidae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Acipenser fulvescens
Common name: Lake Sturgeon
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Acipenseriformes – Family: Acipenseridae
Range: Great Lakes, North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

American Southwest

Genus and species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Common name: Bald Eagle
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gymnogyps californianus 
Common name: California condor
Classification: Order: Cathartiformes – Family: Cathartidae
Range: California, Arizona, Utah and northern Mexico Baja
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Geococcyx californianus
Common name: Greater Roadrunner
Classification: Order: Cuculiformes – Family: Cuculidae – Subfamily: Neomorphinae
Range: Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Euderma maculatum
Common name: Spotted bat
Classification: Family: Vespertilionidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Western north America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Dasypus novemcinctus
Common name: Nine-banned armadillo
Classification: Family: Dasypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North, Central, and  South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Lepus sp.
Common name: Hare
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North American
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu
Common name: Collared peccary
Classification: Family: Tayassuidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Leopardus pardalis
Common name: Ocelot
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and South Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Phrynosoma sp.
Common name: Horny toads or horntoads
Classification: Family: Phrynosomaidae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Heloderma suspectum
Common names: Gila monster
Classification: Family: Helodermidae
Range: American Southwest
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genera: Crotalinae and Sistrurus
Common name: Rattle snake
Classification: Family: Viperidae – Subfamily Crotalinae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Gulf Coast

Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Larus smithsonianus
Common name: Herring Gull
Classification: Order: Charadriiformes – Family: Laridae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Common name: American white pelican
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Pelecanus
Range: North America and Central America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, and species: Meleagris gallopavo
Common name: Turkey
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianida – Subfamily: Phasianinae – Tribe: Meleagridini
Range: North America
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Castor canadensis
Common name: North American beaver
Classification: Family: Castoridae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Canus latrans
Common name: Coyote
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mephitis mephitis
Common name: Striped Skunk
Classification: Family: Mephitidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Procyon lotor
Common name: Raccoon
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus
Common name: White-tailed deer (Dow and Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North, Central and northern South America
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Macrochelys sp.
Common name: “Alligator snapping turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira Family: Chelydridae
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Southeastern United States
Time period: Miocene to Holocene
Name and species: Chelydra serpentina
Common name: “Common snapping turtles”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Family: Chelydridae
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Eastern and non-coastal central North America
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Graptemys sp.
Common name: “Sawback turtles or Map turtles”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Family: Emydidae – Subfamily: Deirochelyinae
Diet: Carnivore
Known locations: Eastern North America and Gulf Coast
Time period: Pleistocene to Holocene
Genus and species: Agkistrodon piscivorus
Common name: Cottonmouth, Water Moccasin, Swamp Moccasin, Black Moccasin, and Viper
Classification: Family: Viperidae
Range: Southeast United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Alligator mississippiensis
Common Name: American alligator
Named by: Daudin – 1802
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Alligatoridae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Locality:  Southeast United States/Gulf Coast
Size: Males 3.4 to 4.8 m (11.2 to 15.7 ft), Femailes 2.6 to 3 m (8.5 to 9.8 ft)
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pseudotriton ruber
Common name: Red Salamander
Classification: Family: Plethodontidae
Range: Eastern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lithobates catesbeianus
Common name: American bullfrog
Classification: Family: Ranidae
Range: Eastern North America
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore

South American Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Genus and species: Panthera onca
Common name: Jaguar
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Chrysocyon brachyurus
Common name: Maned Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Nasua and Nasuella
Common name: Coati
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and Northern South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla
Common name: Giant anteater
Classification: Family: Myrmecophagidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Central and  South America
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Bradypus tridactylus
Common name: Three-toed sloths
Classification: Family: Bradypodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Choloepus hoffmanni
Common name: Two-toed sloths
Classification: Family: Choloepodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
Common name: Capybara
Classification: Family: Caviidae
Time: Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu
Common name: Collared peccary
Classification: Family: Tayassuidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Lama glama
Common name: Lama
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Western South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Vicugna pacos
Common name: Alpaca
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central western South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus
Common name: White-tailed deer (Dow and Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North, Central and northern South America
Diet: Herbivore
Common Name: Manatee (sea cows)
Genus: Trichechus (Linnaeus 1758)
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft)
Wieght: 590 kilograms (1,3000 lb)
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Macaca silenus
Common name: Spider monkey
Classification: Family: Atelidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Central and South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Saimiri sciureus
Common name: Common squirrel monkey
Classification: Family: Cebidae
Time: Miocene (Laventan) to Holocene
Location: Northern South America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Saimiri vanzolinii
Common name: Black squirrel monkey
Classification:Family: Cebidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Small endangered population in northern Brazil
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Cebus cuscinus
Common name:
Shock-headed capuchin
Classification: Family:
Cebidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Upper Amazon Basin, montane forests of western Andes Mountains
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Leontopithecus rosalia
Common name:
Golden lion tamarin
Classification: Family:
Callitrichidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Atlantic coastal forest, Brazil
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Lagothrix lagothricha
Common name:
Common woolly monkey
Classification: Family:
Atelidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Northwestern Central South America
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Iguana iguana
Common name: Green iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Central and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Corallus caninus
Common name:
Emerald tree boa
Classification:
Family: Boidae
Range:
South American
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Pharomachrus mocinno
Common name: Resplendent quetzal
Classification: Order: Trogoniformes – Family: Trognidae
Range: Central American
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus  and species: Ramphastos sulfuratus
Common name: Keel-billed toucan
Classification: Order: Piciformes – Family: Ramphastidae
Range: Central American and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus ruber
Common name: Scarlet ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Northern and one western South American coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Amazonia viridigenalis
Common name: Red-crowned amazon
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Western central Mexico
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Ara ararauna
Common name: Blue-and-yellow macaw
Classification:Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Northern South America 
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus and species: Ara chloropterus
Common name: Red-and-green macaw
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Agalychnis callidryas
Common name: Red-eyed tree frog
Classification: Family: Phyllomedusidae
Range: Central America (Neotropical rainforest)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Dendrobates tinctorius azureus
Common name: Blue poison dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Sipaliwini Savanna, Southern Suriname of northern Brazil
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Oophaga pumilio
Common name: Strawberry poison-dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Central America
Time: Holocene 
Diet:
Insectivore

Galapogos Islands 

Name and species: Chelonia mydas
Common name: “Green sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Family: Cheloniinae
Diet: Juveniles are carnivores, adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Chelonoidis niger
Common name: “Galapagos tortoise”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Galapagos Islands
Time period: Holocene
Genus and species: Amblyrhynchus cristatus
Common name: Galapagos marine iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Galapagos Islands 
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Conolophus subcristatus
Common name: Galapagos land iguana
Classification: Family: Iguanidae
Range: Galapagos Islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sula nebouxii
Common name: Blue-footed booby
Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae
Range: Galapagos Islands, west coast Mexico and northwest coast of South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sula suka
Common name: Red-footed booby
Classification:
Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae
Range:
Central Indian, Pacific and south-central Atlantic Oceans
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Fregata minor
Common name: Great frigatebird
Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Fregatidae
Range: Most tropical oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Buteo galapagoensis
Common name: Galapagos hawk
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: Galapagos islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus mendiculus
Common name: Galapagos penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Galapagos Islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Arctocephalus pusillus
Common name: Fur Seal
Classification: Family: Otariidae  Subfamily: Arctocephalinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Oceans
Diet: Carnivore

 European Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Genus and species: Vulpes vulpes
Common name: Red Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern Hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Meles meles
Common name: European badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Recent
Range: Europe
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Lutra
Common name: Otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Eurasian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Erinaceus europaeus
Common name: European hedgehog
Classification: Family: Erinaceidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Sciurus vulgaris
Common name: Eurasian red squirrel
Classification: Family: Sciurus
Time: Holocene
Range: Asia and Europe
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose (bull)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervus elaphus
Common name: Red deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus
Common name: Reindeer or Caribou
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Capreolus capreolus
Common name: Roe deer
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe to Middle East
Diet: Herbivore

African Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Grasslands/plains

Genus and species: Panthera leo
Common name: African Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera pardus
Common name: Leopard
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Acinonyx jubatus
Common name: Cheetah
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Crocuta crocuta
Common name: Spotted hyena
Classification: Family: Hyaenidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Syncerus caffer
Common name: African Cape buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central to South Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus
Common name: Blue Wildebeest
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Eudorcas thomsonii
Common name: Thomson’s gazelle
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Antilopinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Phacochoerus africanus
Common name: Common Warthog
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris quagga
Common name: Plains Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris grevyi
Common name: Grévy’s Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: East Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris zebra
Common name: Mountain Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus quagga quagga
Common name: Quagga
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene (Extinct 1883)
Range: South Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Ceratotherium simum
Common name: White Rhinoceras
Classification: Family: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Diceros bicornis
Common name: Black or Hook-lipped Rhinoceros
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range:
Africa
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus and species: Hippoptamus amphibius
Common name: Hippo
Classification: Family: Hippoptamidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South Africa and Nile River
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Loxodonta africana
Common name: African Bush Elephant
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya
Range: Africa
Size: Males 3.96m (13.0 ft) and Females 2m (6.6 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus and species: Lycaon pictus
Common name: African Wild Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Suricata suricata
Common name: Meerkats
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Cynictis penicillata
Common name: Yellow mongoose
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Genus and species: Orycteropus afer
Name meaning: “African ant bear”
Classification: Family: Orycteropodidae
Time: Early Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Insectivore
Genus: Smutsia temminckii
Common name: Ground pangolin
Classification: Family: Manidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Papio anubis
Common name: Olive baboon
Classification: Family: Cercopithecidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Struthio camelus
Common name: Common ostrich
Classification: Order: Struthioiformes – Family: Struthionidae
Range: Africa
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genera: Naja Afronaja
Common name: Black-necked spitting cobra
Classification: Family: Elapidae
Range: Sub-Saharan Africa
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

North African Desert (Sahara) and Middle East

Genus and species: Capra nubiana
Common name: Nubian Ibex
Classification: Family: Caprinae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Middle East
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Oryx dammah
Common name: Scimitar oryx
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Hippotraginae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Camelus dromedarius
Common name: Dromedary
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East and western Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Caracal caracal
Common name: Caracal
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Rousettus aegyptiacus
Common name: Egyptian fruit bat
Classification: Family: Pteropodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia
Diet: Herbivore

Jungles and Rainforest

Genus and species: Pan troglodytes
Common name: Chimpanzees
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini – Subtribe: Panina
Time: Middle Pliocene to Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet: Omniovore
Genus and species: Gorilla gorilla
Common name: Gorilla
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Gorillini
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mandrillus sphinx
Common name: Mandrill
Classification: Family: Cercopithecidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: West central Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Cercopithecus ascanius
Common name:
Red-tailed monkey
Classification: Family:
Cercopithecidae
Time:
Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet:
Omnivores
Genus and species: Okapia johnstoni
Common name: Okapi
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Tragelaphus eurycerus
Common name: Bongo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: West central Africa
Diet: Herbivore

Islands of Madagascar and Mauritius

Genus and species: Propithecus candidus
Common name:
Silky Sifaka
Classification:
Superfamily: Lemuroidea – Family: Indriidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Northeastern Madagascar
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Lemur catta
Common name: Ring-tailed lemur
Classification: Superfamily: Lemuroidea – Family: Lemuridae
Time: Holocene
Location: Southwestern Madagascar
Diet: Omnivore
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Sothern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus
Common name: Dodo
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae
Range: Mauritius
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?

Asian Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Genus and species: Panthera tigris
Common name: Tiger
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera uncia
Common name: Snow Leopard
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Elephas maximus
Common name: Asian Elephant
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya
Range: South Asia
Size: Males 2.75m (9.0 ft) and Females 2.40m (7.9 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Melursus ursinus
Common name: Sloth Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae – Subfamily: Ursinae
Time: Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Indian subcontinent
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Helarctos malayanus
Common name: Sun Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae – Subfamily: Ursinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southeast Asia
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Common name: Giant Panada
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: China
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Aliurus fulgens
Common name: Red Panada
Classification: Family: Ailuridae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: China
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Tarsius sp.
Common name: Tarsier
Classification: Suborder: Haplorhini – Clade: Omomyiformes – Family: Tarsiidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Southeast Asia
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Macaca silenus
Common name:
Lion-tailed macaque
Classification: Family:
Cercopithecidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Southwestern India
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Nasalis larvatus
Common name:
Proboscis monkey
Classification: Family:
Cercopithecidae, Subfamily: Colobinae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Malaysia
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus and species: Pongo pygmaeus
Common name: Orangutans
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Ponginae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Southeast Asia and South China
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose (bull)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervus elaphus
Common name: Red deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus
Common name: Reindeer or Caribou
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bubalus bubalis
Common name: Water buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Asia and Egypt
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Camelus bactrianus
Common name: Bactrian camel
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
Common name: Sumatran Rhinoceras
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southeast Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Acrocodia indica
Common name: Malayan Tapir
Classifiaction: Tapiridae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus przewalskii
Common name: Przewalski’s horse
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Mongolia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Gavialis gangeticus
Common Name: Gharial
Named by: Schneider – 1801
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Gavialidae
Time: Pleisocene to Holocene
Locality:  India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar
Size: Males 3 to 6 m (9 ft 10 in to 19 ft 8 in), Femailes 2.6 to 4.5 m (8 ft 6 in to 14 ft 9in)
Diet: Carnivore
 
Common name: Gekko
Classification: Family: Gekkonidae
Range: Warm Climates
Time: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Varanus komodoensis
Common name: Komodo dragon
Range: Indonesia, Flores, Gili Montang, Rinca
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dichotomyctere fluviatilis
Common name: Green pufferfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Tetraodontiformes – Suborder: Tetraodontoidei – Family: Tetraodontidae
Range: South and Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Australian, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Name and species: Caretta caretta
Common name: “Loggerhead sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – ‬Family: Cheloniinae
Diet: Adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Eocene to Holocene
Genus and species: Oxyuranus microlepidotus
Common name:
Taipan
Classification:
Family: Elapidae – Subfamily Hydrophiinae
Range:
Australia
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Chlamydosaurus kingii
Common name: Frilled lizard
Classification: Family: Agamidae
Range: Northern Australia, Southern  New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Crocodylus porosus
Common Name: Saltwater crocodile
Named by: Schneider – 1801
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Crocodylidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Locality:  Southeat Asia, Micronesia, and Sundaic region to northern Australia
Size: Males 6 m (20 ft), Femailes 3 m (10 ft)
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Common name: Platypus
Classification: Family: Ornithorhynchidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Eastern Austrailia
Diet: Carnivore (annelid worms, insect larva, freshwater shrimp and crawfish)
Genus: Tachyglossidae aculeatus
Common name: Short-beaked echidna
Classification: Family: Tachyglossidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Austrailia, Tazmania, southest Papua New Guinea
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Perameles gunnii
Common name: Common Rabbit Bandicoots
Classification: Family: Peramelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia and Tazmania
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Trichosurus vulpecula
Common name: Common brushtail possum
Classification: Family: Phalangeridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Tasmania
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Osphranter rufus
Common name: Red Kangaroo
Classification: Suborder: Macropodiformes – Family: Osphranter
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Common name: Wallabies
Classification: Suborder: Macropodiformes – Family: Macropodidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus and species: Vombatus ursinus
Common name: Common Wombat
Classification: Superfamily: Vombatoidea – Family: Vombatidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia and Tasmania
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus
Common name: Male Koala
Classification: Family: Phascolarctidar
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Eastern Australia
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Thylacine cynocephalus
Common name: Tazmanian Tiger
Classification: Family: Thylacinidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene-1936
Range: Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sarcophilus harrisii
Common name: Tazmanian Devil
Classification: Family: Dasyuridae
Time: Late Holocene
Range: Australia and Tasmania
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mymecobius fasciatus
Common name: Numbat
Classification: Family: Myrmecobiidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dasyuridae maculatus
Common name: Tiger quoll
Classification: Family: Dasyuridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Eastern Australia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canus lupus dingo
Common name: Australian Dingo
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Dromaius novaehollandiae
Common name: Emu
Classification: Order: Casuariiformes – Family: Casuariidae
Range: Australia
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Calyptorhynchus banksii
Common name: Red-tailed black cockatoo
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae
Range: Australia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Melopsittacus undulatus
Common name: Budgerigar
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Australia
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cacatua galerita
Common name: Yellow-crested cockatoo
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae
Range: Australia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Apteryx australis
Common name: Kiwi
Classification: Order: Apterygiformes – Family: Apterygidae
Range: New Zealand
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Great Barrier Reef

Genus and species: Paracanthurus hepatus
Common name: Blue tang, Regal tang, Palette surgeonfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Acanthuriformes – Family: Acanthuridae 
Range: Indo Pacific: Great Barrier Reef of Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, East Africa, Samoa, Sri Lanka, and New Caledonia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Amphiprion ocellaris
Common name: Ocellaris clownfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Pomacentridae
Range: Australia, Japan, and Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Centropyge loricula
Common name: Flame angelfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Pomacanhidae
Range: Pacific Ocean ropical waters
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pterois volitans
Common name: Lionfish, firefish, turkeyfish, butterfly-cod, or tastyfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Scorpaeniformes – Family: Scorpaenidae – Tribe: Pteroini
Range: Indo-Pacific
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Antartica Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri
Common name: Emperor penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Aptendytes patagonicus
Common name: King penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica and surrounding islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis papua
Common name: Gentoo penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas between South America and Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis adeliae
Common name: Adelie penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas around Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Oceans of the Northgrippian Stage 0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

Genus and species: Eschrichtius robustus
Common name: Gray whale
Classification: Family: Eschrichtiidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North American west coast northwest Asian coast
Diet: Filter Feeders
Genus and species: Megaptera novaeangliae
Common name: Humpback whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Balaenoptera borealis
Common name: Sei whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Balaenoptera musculus
Common name: Blue whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Physeter macrocephalus
Common name: Sperm whales
Classification: Family: Physeteridae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Orcinus orca
Common name: Killer whale
Classification: Family: Delphinidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Tursiops truncatus
Common name: Bottlenose Dolphin
Classification: Family: Delphinidae – Subfamily: Delphiniae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global, non polar oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Thunnus thunnus thynnus
Common name: Atlantic bluefun tuna
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Scombriformes – Family: Scombridae
Range: Western and eastern Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, and formerly Black Sea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Enchelycore schismatrhynchus
Common name: White-margined moral, brown moral eel, or funnel-nostril moray
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes – Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae
Range: Coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gymnomuraena zebra
Common name: Zebra moral
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae 
Range: Western coast of Americas, Indo-Pacific, eastern coast of Africa, Red Sea, Galapagos, and Hawaii
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Anarchias seychellensis
Common name: Seychelles moray or the marbled reef-eel
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae
Range: Coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus
Common name: Seahorse
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian Stage/Age is the lowest unit in the Holocene Epoch. Defined by a sample from the North Greenland Ice Core Project in central Greenland. The International Commission on Stratigraphy offically ratified the Greenlandian in June 2018.

North American Greenlandian Stage 0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore

Central to South American Greenlandian Stage 0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Megatherium americanum
Name meaning: Large beast from America
Classification: Family: Megatherium
Time: Early Pliocene to Early Holocene
Range: Central South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Doedicurus clavicaudatus
Common name: Giant armodilla
Classification: Family: Glyptodontinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)

European Greenlandian Stage 0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore

African Greenlandian Stage 0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore

Asian Greenlandian Stage 0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore

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