Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Albian Stage

(113.0 to 100.5 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Albian Age/Stage

Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

The Albian is the final stage of the early or lower Cretaceous Period. The name was first purposed in 1842 by Alcide d’Orbigny after Alba, the Latin name for the River Aube in France.

North American Albian Stage Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Acrocanthosaurus “High spined lizard”
Classification: Family: Carcharodontosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: USA, Oklahoma, Antlers Formation, and the Texas, Twin Mountains Formation
Size: 11.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Deinonychus “terrible claw”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Antlers Formation and Cloverly Formation
Size: 3.4 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Sauropelta “lizard shield”
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: USA: Wyoming and Montana – Cloverly Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Borealopelta ‭(northern shield‬‭)‬
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gastonia “Gaston’s thing”
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Albian)
Locality: USA: Utah – Cedar Mountian Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Tenontosaurus “Sinew lizard”
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Western North America
Size: 6.5 to 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Iguanodon “Iguana tooth
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia – Family: Iguanodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian and Cenomanian?)
Locality: Initially associated with Western Europe,‭ ‬attributed remains are now known in Africa,‭ ‬Asia, North America
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Axelrodichthys
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Order: Coelacanthiformes
Known locations: Brazil, North Africa, and Mexico (Aptian to Albian) – Morrocco (Cenomanian) – Madagascar (Coniacian to Santonian) – France (Lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian),
Time period: Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian)
Size: 1 to 2 meters long (depending on species)
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

European Albian Stage Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Ornithocheirus “Bird hand”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Ornithocheiridae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: England – Cambridge Greensand, Brazil – Santana Formation
Size: 5 m wingspan
Diet: Piscivore
Genus: Iguanodon “Iguana tooth
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia – Family: Iguanodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian and Cenomanian?)
Locality: Initially associated with Western Europe,‭ ‬attributed remains are now known in Africa,‭ ‬Asia, North America
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

South American Albian Stage Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

Genus: Irritator “Irritation”
Classification: Subfamily: Spinosaurinae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Brazil – probably the Santana Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Genyodectes “Jaw biter”
Classification: Family: Ceratosauridae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Aptian/Albian?)
Locality: Argentina‭ ‬-‭ ‬Cerro Barcino Formation,‭ ‬Cerro Castaño Member
Size: Unknown meters long – only partial skull found
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Patagotitan“Patagonian giant”
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria – Clade: Lognkosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Chubut Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Cerro Barcino Formation
Size: 37 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Agustinia “Named after Agustin Martinelli, the discoverer
Classification: Superfamily: Diplodocoidea/Titanosauridae?
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Neuquen Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lohan Cura Formation
Size: 15 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Sarcosuchus‭  flesh crocodile
Classification: Order: Crocodylia, Family: Pholidosauridae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Albian)
Locality:  Africa and South America
Size: 9 to 11 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Name: Ornithocheirus “Bird hand”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Ornithocheiridae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: England – Cambridge Greensand, Brazil – Santana Formation
Size: 5 m wingspan
Diet: Piscivore
Name: Tupuxuara “Familiar spirit”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Thalassodromidae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Brazil – Santana Formation
Size: 5.5 m wingspan
Diet: Piscivore
Name: Tropeognathus “Keel jaw”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Ornithocheiridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Brazil – Santana Formation
Size: 8 m wingspan
Diet: Piscivore
 
Name: Pterodaustro “Southern wing”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Ctenochasmatinae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Argentina, San Luis Province – Lagarcito Formation, Chile – Santa Ana Formation
Size: 2.5 m wingspan
Diet: Filter feeder
Name: Tapejara “Ancient Entity”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Tapejaridae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Brazil – Santana Formation
Size: 3.5 m wingspan
Diet: Piscivore, possible Fugivore
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Axelrodichthys
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Order: Coelacanthiformes
Known locations: Brazil, North Africa, and Mexico (Aptian to Albian) – Morrocco (Cenomanian) – Madagascar (Coniacian to Santonian) – France (Lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian),
Time period: Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian)
Size: 1 to 2 meters long (depending on species)
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

African Albian Stage Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

Genus: Suchomimus “Crocodile mimic”
Classification: Subfamily: Baryonychinae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Niger – Elhraz Formation
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Eocarcharia Dawn shark‭
Classification: Clade: Carcharodontosauria – Family: Carcharodontosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Niger‭ ‬-‭ ‬Elrhaz Formation
Size: 6 to 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Nigersaurus “lizard from Niger”
Classification: Family: Rebbachisauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian or Albian)
Locality: Africa, Niger, Elrhaz Formation.
Size: 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Ouranosaurus “brave lizard
Classification: Clade: Hadrosauriformes
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Cenomanian)
Locality: Africa,‭ ‬Niger‭ ‬-‭ ‬Echkar Formation. Specimens also known from other locations in Africa
Size: 7 to 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Sarcosuchus‭  flesh crocodile
Classification: Order: Crocodylia, Family: Pholidosauridae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Albian)
Locality:  Africa and South America
Size: 9 to 11 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Axelrodichthys
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Order: Coelacanthiformes
Known locations: Brazil, North Africa, and Mexico (Aptian to Albian) – Morrocco (Cenomanian) – Madagascar (Coniacian to Santonian) – France (Lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian),
Time period: Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian)
Size: 1 to 2 meters long (depending on species)
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Pterosaur “winged reptile” (No official bionomial species name)
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: …
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Southern Sahara
Size: 3 m wingspan
Diet: Carnivore

Asian Albian Stage Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Xiongguanlong “Xiongguan dragon”
Classification: Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: China, Gansu Province
Size: 4 to 4.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Nanshiungosaurus “Nanshiung lizard”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Campanian)
Locality:  China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Chijinbao Formation,‭ ‬Nanxiong Formation,‭ ‬Yuanpu Formation.
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Koreaceratops “Korea horn face
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: South Korea – Tando Basin
Size: Uncertain meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Wuerhosaurus “Wuerho lizaed”
Classification: Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)
Locality: China,: ‬Xinjiang‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tugulu Group,‭ ‬Inner Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ejinhoro Formation
Size: 5 to 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Dsungaripterus “Juuggar basin wing”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Dsungaripteridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: China – Juuggar Basin
Size: 3 to 3.5 m wingspan
Diet: Shellfish
 

Australian Albian Stage Early Cretaceous: 113.0 to 100.5 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Kronosaurus ‭ “Kronus lizard‭ ‬-‭ ‬after the king of the Greek Titans‭‭”
Species: K.‭ ‬queenslandicus‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬K.‭ ‬boyacensis
Classification: Order: ‬Plesiosauria – Family: Pliosauridae
Size: 9‭ ‬to ‬10‭ ‬meters long.‭ ‬Skull‭ ‬2.7‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: Australia and‭ ‬Colombia
Time period: Early Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Muttaburrasaurus “Muttaburra lizard
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia – Family: Rhabdodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian to early Cenomanian)
Locality: Australia, Queensland – Mackunda Formation, possibly also New South Wales‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lightning Ridge
Size: 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Leaellynasaura “Leaellyn’s lizard
Classification: Family: Hypsilophodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Australia, Victoria
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

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