Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Berremian Stage

(129.4 to 121.4 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Barremian Age/Stage

Early Cretaceous: 129.4 to 121.4 million years ago

The Berrmian Epoch was named in 1873 by Henri Coquand after the village of Berreme, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence in France.

North American Barremian Stage Early Cretaceous: 129.4 to 121.4 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Utahraptor “Utah’s hunter”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae – Clade: Eudromaeosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: USA, Utah
Size: 7 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Falcarius “sickle  cutter”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: USA, Utah, Cedar Mountain Formation
Size: 3.7 -4 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Gastonia “Gaston’s thing”
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Albian)
Locality: USA: Utah – Cedar Mountian Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

European Barremian Stage Early Cretaceous: 129.4 to 121.4 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Neovenator “New hunter”
Classification: Family: Neovenatoridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: United Kingdom, Isle of Wright
Size: 7.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Baryonyx “Heavy claw”
Classification: Subfamily: Baryonychinae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Barremian)
Locality: England, Surrey. Spain. Porugal. Possibly North Africa.
Size: 9 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Eotyrannus “Dawn Tyrant”
Classification: Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: United Kingdom, Isle of Wight – Wessex Formation
Size: 4 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Hypsilophodon “Hypsilophus tooth
Classification: Family: Hypsilophodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: England, Isle of Wight – Wessex Formation
Size: 1.5 to 1.8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Iguanodon “Iguana tooth
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia – Family: Iguanodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian and Cenomanian?)
Locality: Initially associated with Western Europe,‭ ‬attributed remains are now known in Africa,‭ ‬Asia, North America
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Mantellisaurus “Mantell’s lizard
Classification: Clade: Hadrosauriformes
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: England, Isle of Wight – Wessex Formation
Size: 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Polacanthus “many spikes”
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: United Kingdom, Isle of Wight, Sussex
Size: 4 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Concavenator “Hump backed hunter from Cuenca”
Classification: Family: Carcharodontosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: Spain, Las Hoyas – La Huerguina Formation
Size: 5.8 to 6 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 

Asian Barremian Stage Early Cretaceous: 129.4 to 121.4 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Dilong “Emperor dragon”
Classification: Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: China, Liaoning Province, Yixian Formation
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Sinosauropteryx “Chinese lizard wing”
Classification: Family: Compsognathidae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: China, Liaoning Province – Yixian Formation
Size: 107 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Psittacosaurus “parrot lizard
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Psittacosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: China, Mongolia, and Russia. Possibly also Thailand
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Wuerhosaurus “Wuerho lizaed”
Classification: Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)
Locality: China,: ‬Xinjiang‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tugulu Group,‭ ‬Inner Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ejinhoro Formation
Size: 5 to 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Nanshiungosaurus “Nanshiung lizard”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Campanian)
Locality:  China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Chijinbao Formation,‭ ‬Nanxiong Formation,‭ ‬Yuanpu Formation.
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Daxiatitan “Daxia titan”
Classification: Superfamily: Titanosauroidea
Time: Early Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: China, Gansu Province
Size: 21 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Siamosaurus 
Classification: Subfamily: Spinosauridae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: Thailand
Size: Unknown meters long – known for teeth
Diet: Piscivore/Carnivore
Genus: Fukuiraptor “Fukui thief”
Classification: Family: Neovenatoridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: Japan, Honshu Island, Fukui Prefecture – Kitadani Formation
Size: 4.2 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 

African Barremian Stage Early Cretaceous: 129.4 to 121.4 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Sarcosuchus‭  flesh crocodile
Classification: Order: Crocodylia, Family: Pholidosauridae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Albian)
Locality:  Africa and South America
Size: 9 to 11 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Afroventor “African hunter”
Classification: Family Megalosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Barremian)
Locality: Africa, Niger, Abaka – Tiouraren Formation
Size: 7 to 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 

South American Barremian Stage Early Cretaceous: 129.4 to 121.4 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Sarcosuchus‭  flesh crocodile
Classification: Order: Crocodylia, Family: Pholidosauridae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Albian)
Locality:  Africa and South America
Size: 9 to 11 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Amargosaurus “Amarga lizard
Classification: Family: Dicraeosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: Argentina, Neuquen province – La Amarga Formation
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

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