Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Cenomanian Stage

(100.5 to 93.9 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Cenomanian Age/Stage

Late Cretaceous: 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago

The Cenomanian Epoch is the first stage of the late or upper Cretaceous Period.  The Cenomanian was named in 1847 by French paleontologist Alcide d’Orbigny after the French city of Le Mans Cenomanum.

North American Cenomanian Stage Late Cretaceous: 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Thalassomedon ‭”Sea lord‭”
Species: T.‭ ‬hanningtoni ‭(‬type‭)
Classification: Order: Plesiosauria – Family: Elasmosauridae
Size: 12 ‬meters long
Known locations: USA,‭ ‬Colorado‭ – Graneros Shale Formation, and ‬Montana – Belle Fourche Formation
Time period: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Diet: Piscivore
Genus: Siats after a creature from Ute Native American Mythology
Classification: Family: Neovenatoridae – Clade: Megaraptora
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬Cedar Mountain Formation
Size: 9 to 12 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Moros ‬ancient Greek for‭ ‘‬impending doom‭’
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian )
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬Cedar Mountain Formation
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Nothronychus “slothful claw”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Late Cenomanian to Early Turonian)
Locality: USA, New Mexico – Moreno Hill Formation, and Utah – Tropic Shale Formation
Size: 4.5 to 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Iguanodon “Iguana tooth
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia – Family: Iguanodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian and Cenomanian?)
Locality: Initially associated with Western Europe,‭ ‬attributed remains are now known in Africa,‭ ‬Asia and North America
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

South American Cenomanian Stage Late Cretaceous: 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago

Genus: Giganotosaurus “Giant southern lizard”
Classification: Family: Carcharodontosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Argentina – Candeleros Formation
Size: 12 to 13 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Ekrixinatosaurus Explosion-born lizard
Classification: Subfamily: Carnotaurinae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian )
Locality: Argentina – Candeleros Formation
Size: 7 to 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mapusaurus “Earth lizard”
Classification: Family: Carcharodontosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Argentina – Huincul Formation
Size: 10.2 to 12.6 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Skorpiovenator Scorpion hunter
Classification: Subfamily: Carnotaurinae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian )
Locality: Argentina – Huincul Formation
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Argentinosaurus “Argentina lizard”
Classification: Family: Antarctosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Argentina, Huincul Formation
Size: 22-35 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

African Cenomanian Stage Late Cretaceous: 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago

Genus: Spinosaurus “Spine lizard”
Classification: Subfamily: Spinosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian)
Locality: North Africa, particularly Egypt – Bahariya Formation, and Morocco – Kem Kem Beds
Size: 12.6 to 18 meters long
Diet: Piscivore/Carnivore
Genus: Carcharodontosaurus “Shark toothed lizard”
Classification: Family: Carcharodontosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Algeria – Continental Intercalaire Formaton, Egypt – Baharije Formation, Mut Formation, Morocco – Aoufous Formation, Kem Kem Formation, Niger – Continental Intercalaire Formation, Echkar Fomation, and Tunisia – Chenini Formation.
Size: 12 to 13 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Rugops “Wrinkle face”
Classification: Subfamily: Carnotaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Africa, Niger – Echkar Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Deltadromeus “Delta runner”
Classification: Family: Noasauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Morocco – Bahariya Formation and Kem Kem Beds
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Kaprosuchus‭ boar crocodile
Classification: Suborder: Notosuchia, Family: Mahajangasuchidae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality:  Africa,‭ ‬Niger,‭ ‬Echkar Formation
Size: 3.3 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Rebbachisaurus “Rebbach lizard”
Classification: Family: Rebbachisauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Africa, Morocco – Aoufous Formation.
Size: 20 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Paralititan “tidal titan”
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Egypt – Bahariya Formation
Size: 26 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Ouranosaurus “brave lizard
Classification: Clade: Hadrosauriformes
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Cenomanian)
Locality: Africa,‭ ‬Niger‭ ‬-‭ ‬Echkar Formation. Specimens also known from other locations in Africa
Size: 7 to 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Axelrodichthys
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Order: Coelacanthiformes
Known locations: Brazil, North Africa, and Mexico (Aptian to Albian) – Morrocco (Cenomanian) – Madagascar (Coniacian to Santonian) – France (Lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian),
Time period: Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian)
Size: 1 to 2 meters long (depending on species)
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Asian Cenomanian Stage Late Cretaceous: 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Nanshiungosaurus “Nanshiung lizard”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Campanian)
Locality:  China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Chijinbao Formation,‭ ‬Nanxiong Formation,‭ ‬Yuanpu Formation.
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

Australian Cenomanian Stage Late Cretaceous: 100.5 to 93.9 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Muttaburrasaurus “Muttaburra lizard
Classification: Clade: Iguanodontia – Family: Rhabdodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian to early Cenomanian)
Locality: Australia, Queensland – Mackunda Formation, possibly also New South Wales‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lightning Ridge
Size: 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

<< Back to Cretaceous Albian Stage

Geology Time Scale Homepage

Back to Cretaceous Period Homepage

Next to Cretaceous Turonian Stage >>