Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Coniacian Stage

(89.8 to 83.6 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Coniacian Age/Stage

Late Cretaceous: 89.8 to 83.6 million years ago

The Coniacian Epoch was named in 1857 by French geologist Henri Coquand after the city of Cognac in the French region of Saintonge.

North American Coniacian Stage Late Cretaceous: 89.8 to 83.6 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: ‬Ichthyodectiformes – Family: Ichthyodectidae
Type: Carnivore/Piscivore
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada
Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Dolichorhynchops‭ “Long-nosed eye‭‭‭”
Classification: Order: ‬Plesiosauria – Family: Polycotylidae
Size: 3‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: Canada,‭ ‬Saskatchewan;‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Kansas;‭ ‬Smokey Hill Chalk‭ & ‬Fort Hays Limestone,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tropic Shale
Time period: Cretaceous (Turonian to Campanian)
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Champsosaurus  crocodile lizard
Classification: Order: Choristodera, Family: Champsosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Turonian) to Paleocene (Thanetian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 1.5 to 3.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Pteranodon “toothless wing”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Pteranodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Campanian)
Locality: United States – Niobrara Formation, Pierre Shale Formation
Size: Males: 5.6 m wingspan, Females: 3.5 m
Diet: Piscivore
Name: Pteranodon “toothless wing”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Pteranodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Campanian)
Locality: United States – Niobrara Formation, Pierre Shale Formation
Size: Males: 5.6 m wingspan, Females: 3.5 m
Diet: Piscivore
Name: Pteranodon sternbergi or Geosternbergia
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family: Pteranodontidae
Time: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Campanian)
Locality: United States – lower Niobrara Formation
Size: 3 to 6 meters
Diet: Piscivore

European Coniacian Stage Late Cretaceous: 89.8 to 83.6 million years ago

Genus: Baculites
Name meaning: “walking stick rock”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: North America , Europe (Turonian to Campanian)
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Africa Coniacian Stage Late Cretaceous: 89.8 to 83.6 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Axelrodichthys
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Order: Coelacanthiformes
Known locations: Brazil, North Africa, and Mexico (Aptian to Albian) – Morrocco (Cenomanian) – Madagascar (Coniacian to Santonian) – France (Lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian),
Time period: Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian)
Size: 1 to 2 meters long (depending on species)
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Asia Coniacian Stage Late Cretaceous: 89.8 to 83.6 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Family: Ichthyodectidae
Type: Carnivore/Piscivore
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada
Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Nanshiungosaurus “Nanshiung lizard”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Campanian)
Locality:  China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Chijinbao Formation,‭ ‬Nanxiong Formation,‭ ‬Yuanpu Formation.
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

Australian Coniacian Stage Late Cretaceous: 89.8 to 83.6 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Family: Ichthyodectidae
Type: Carnivore/Piscivore
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada
Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)

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