Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Maastrichtian Stage

(72.1 to 66.0 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Maastrichtian Age/Stage

Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

The Maastrichtian was the last stage, age, or epoch of the late or upper Cretaceous period. The Maastrichtian was first identified in 1849 by Belgian geologist Andre Hubert Dumont. The name derived from studying rock strata (layers) from the Chalk Group near the Dutch town of Maastricht. was formally named the Maastricht Formation by Dumont. The Masstrichtian ends with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event.

North American Maastrichtian Stage Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

Hell Creek Formation: Wyoming 69 to 66 MYA

Genus: Tyrannosaurus “Tyrant lizard”
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Western North America
Size: 12.3 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Triceratops “three horned faceSpecies: horridus
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Triceratops “three horned faceSpecies: prorsus
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Torosaurus perforated lizard
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Scollard Formation,‭ ‬Saskatchewan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Frenchman Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Colorado‭ ‬-‭ ‬Laramie Formation,‭ ‬North Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬South Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Javelina Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lance Formation.
Size: 7.5 to 7.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Leptoceratops “small horned face
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Leptoceratopsidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta, USA: Wyoming
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Dracorex “dragon king”
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬South Dakota – Hell Creek Formation
Size: 3 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Stygimoloch “Styx demon”
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA – Ferris Formation, Hell Creek Formation
Size: 3 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Pachycephalosaurus “thick headed lizard”
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA
Size: 4.5  meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Edmontosaurus “Edmonton lizard”
Classification: Tribe: Edmontosaurini
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta and Saskatchewan. USA:‭ Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota and Wyoming.
Size: 9‭ ‬to as much as‭ ‬12‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Ankylosaurus ‭(‬fused lizard‭)‬
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta – Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Scollard Formation. USA, Montana – Hell Creek Formation, New Mexico – Kirtland Formation, Wyoming – Ferris Formation, Lance Formation
Size: 6.25 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Anzu ‬named after mythical creature that appears in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology
Classiification: Family: Caenagnathidae
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬North Dakota and South Dakota‭ (‬all Hell Creek Formation‭)
Size: 1.5 meters long
Diet: Omnivore?
Name: Quetzalcoatlus “from Quetzalcoatl”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family Azhdarchidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: United States, Texas, Javelina Formation, Big Bend National Park
Size: Males: 11 m wingspan
Diet: Carnivore
 
Name: Quetzalcoatlus “from Quetzalcoatl”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family Azhdarchidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: United States, Texas, Javelina Formation, Big Bend National Park
Size: Males: 11 m wingspan
Diet: Carnivore
 

Lance Formation: Wyoming 69 to 66 MYA

Genus: Tyrannosaurus “Tyrant lizard”
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Western North America
Size: 12.3 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Anzu ‬named after mythical creature that appears in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology
Classiification: Family: Caenagnathidae – Subfamily: Caenagnathinae
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬North Dakota and South Dakota‭ (‬all Hell Creek Formation‭)
Size: 1.5 meters long
Diet: Omnivore?
 
Genus: Ankylosaurus ‭(‬fused lizard‭)‬
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta – Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Scollard Formation. USA, Montana – Hell Creek Formation, New Mexico – Kirtland Formation, Wyoming – Ferris Formation, Lance Formation
Size: 6.25 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Edmontonia ‭(‬From Edomonton‭ ‬-‭ ‬After the Edmonton Formation‭)‬
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Quetzalcoatlus “from Quetzalcoatl”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family Azhdarchidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: United States, Texas, Javelina Formation, Big Bend National Park
Size: Males: 11 m wingspan
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Triceratops “three horned faceSpecies: prorsus
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Triceratops “three horned faceSpecies: horridus
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Torosaurus perforated lizard
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Scollard Formation,‭ ‬Saskatchewan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Frenchman Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Colorado‭ ‬-‭ ‬Laramie Formation,‭ ‬North Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬South Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Javelina Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lance Formation.
Size: 7.5 to 7.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Pachycephalosaurus “thick headed lizard”
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA
Size: 4.5  meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Quetzalcoatlus “from Quetzalcoatl”
Classification: Suborder: Pterodactyloidea – Family Azhdarchidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: United States, Texas, Javelina Formation, Big Bend National Park
Size: Males: 11 m wingspan
Diet: Carnivore
 

Ojo Alamo Formation: New Mexico 69 to 64 MYA

Genus: Tyrannosaurus “Tyrant lizard”
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Western North America
Size: 12.3 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Alamosaurus “Alamo lizard”
Classification: Family: Saltasauridea – Clade: Opisthocoelicaudiinae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ojo Alamo Formation‭ (‬possibly part of the Kirtland Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation and Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Black Peaks Formation,‭ ‬El Picacho Formation and Javelina Formation
Size: 20 to 24 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Torosaurus perforated lizard
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Scollard Formation,‭ ‬Saskatchewan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Frenchman Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Colorado‭ ‬-‭ ‬Laramie Formation,‭ ‬North Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬South Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Javelina Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lance Formation.
Size: 7.5 to 7.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Edmontosaurus “Edmonton lizard”
Classification: Tribe: Edmontosaurini
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta and Saskatchewan. USA:‭ Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota and Wyoming.
Size: 9‭ ‬to as much as‭ ‬12‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Herbivore

New Egypt Formation: New Jersey 70 to 66 MYA

Genus: Baculites
Name meaning: “walking stick rock”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: North America , Europe (Turonian to Campanian)
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Mosasaurus (‭”Meuse lizard‭ ‬-‭ ‬after the Meuse River‭”)
Classification: Tribe: ‬Mosasaurini.
Known locations: Western Europe and North America
Time period: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Size: 15 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Dryptosaurus  Tearing lizard
Classification: Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea – Family:Dryptosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Eastern USA
Size: 7.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Prince Creek Formation: Northern Alaska 70.6 to 69.1 MYA

Genus: Saurornitholestes “lizard bird thief”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae – Clade: Eudromaeosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation,‭ ‬Oldman Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Two Medicine Formation,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Kirtland Formation
Size: 1.8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Troodon “wounding tooth”
Classification: Tribe: Troodontinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA, Montana – Judith Formation
Size: 1.8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Pachyrhinosaurus thick nosed lizard
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation,‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Alaska‭ ‬-‭ ‬Prince Creek Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Edmontosaurus “Edmonton lizard”
Classification: Tribe: Edmontosaurini
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta and Saskatchewan. USA:‭ Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota and Wyoming.
Size: 9‭ ‬to as much as‭ ‬12‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Herbivore

St. Mary River Formation: Alberta, Canada and Montana, U.S. 71.9 to 67 MYA

Genus: Saurornitholestes “lizard bird thief”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae – Clade: Eudromaeosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation,‭ ‬Oldman Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Two Medicine Formation,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Kirtland Formation
Size: 1.8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Troodon “wounding tooth”
Classification: Tribe: Troodontinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA, Montana – Judith Formation
Size: 1.8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Albertosaurus “Alberta lizard”
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae – Subfamily: Albertosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA and Canada
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Regaliceratops royal horned face
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tibe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Middle Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭‬‭ ‬St Mary River Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Pachyrhinosaurus thick nosed lizard
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation,‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Alaska‭ ‬-‭ ‬Prince Creek Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Edmontonia ‭(‬From Edomonton‭ ‬-‭ ‬After the Edmonton Formation‭)‬
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Champsosaurus  crocodile lizard
Classification: Order: Choristodera, Family: Champsosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Turonian) to Paleocene (Thanetian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 1.5 to 3.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Horseshoe Canyon Formation: Alberta, Western Canada 74 to 67 MYA

Genus: Albertosaurus “Alberta lizard”
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae – Subfamily: Albertosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA and Canada
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Atrociraptor “Cruel thief”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae – Clade: Eudromaeosauria – Subfamily: Saurornitholestinae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian )
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation
Size:Uncertain due to low amount of fossil remains
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Struthiomimus “Ostrich mimic”
Classification: Family: Ornithomimidae
Time: Cretaceous (Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation and Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation.
Size: 4.3 meters long
Diet: Omnivore?
Genus: Ornithomimus “Bird mimic”
Classification: Family: Ornithomimidae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA and Canada
Size: 3.8 meters long
Diet: Omnivore?
 
Genus: Pachyrhinosaurus thick nosed lizard
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation,‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Alaska‭ ‬-‭ ‬Prince Creek Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Saurolophus “lizard crest
Classification: Tribe: Saurolophini
Time: Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada‭: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Nemegt Formation.‭ ‬Possibly also USA‭: ‬California‭ ‬-‭ ‬Moreno Formation and China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Heilongjiang Province
Size: 10 to 12 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Hypacrosaurus “near the high lizard”
Classification: Tribe: Lambeosaurini
Time: Late Cretaceous (Campanian to early Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada‭: Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Two Medicine Formation
Size: 9.1 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Name: Edmontosaurus “Edmonton lizard”
Classification: Tribe: Edmontosaurini
Time: Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta and Saskatchewan. USA:‭ Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota and Wyoming.
Size: 9‭ ‬to as much as‭ ‬12‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Euoplocephalus ‭(well armoured head‭)‬
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park‭ & ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Judith River Formation
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Edmontonia ‭(‬From Edomonton‭ ‬-‭ ‬After the Edmonton Formation‭)‬
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Champsosaurus  crocodile lizard
Classification: Order: Choristodera, Family: Champsosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Turonian) to Paleocene (Thanetian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 1.5 to 3.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

North American Great Western Interior Seaway

Genus: Baculites
Name meaning: “walking stick rock”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: North America , Europe (Turonian to Campanian)
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Diplomoceras 
Name meaning: “Double horn”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Lower Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian)
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name:“Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: ‬Ichthyodectiformes – Family: Ichthyodectidae
Type: Carnivore/Piscivore
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada
Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Mosasaurus (‭”Meuse lizard‭ ‬-‭ ‬after the Meuse River‭”)
Classification: Tribe: ‬Mosasaurini.
Known locations: Western Europe and North America
Time period: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Size: 15 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Tylosaurus ‭(‬Knob lizard‭)‬
Classification: Subfamily: ‬Tylosaurinae
Known locations: Canada.‭ ‬Central states of USA
Time period: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Size: 15‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Name: Hydrotherosaurus  ‭”Water beast lizard‭”
Classification: Superorder: Sauropterygia – Order: Plesiosauria – Family: Elasmosauridae
Size: 8 ‬meters long
Known locations: USA‭ ‬-‭ ‬California‭ ‬-‭ ‬Moreno Formation
Time period: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Diet: Piscivore

Asia Maastrichtian Stage Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

Genus: Qianzhousaurus “Ganzhou lizard”
Classification: Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: China – Nanxiong Formation
Size: 6.3 – 7 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Olorotitan “giant swan”
Classification: Tribe: Lambeosaurini
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Russia, Amur Region – Tsagayan Formation
Size: 12 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Kamuysaurus deity  lizard
Classification: Tribe: Saurolophini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Japan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hakobuchi Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Rajasaurus”Princely lizard”
Classification: Subfamily: Carnotaurinae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: India – Lameta Formation
Size: 6 to 9 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 

Nemegt Formation: Mongolia 70 Mya

Genus: Tarbosaurus “Terrifying lizard”
Classification: Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Mongolia
Size: 10 to 12 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Alioramus “Different branch”
Classification: Family: Tyrannosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Mongolia
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Mononykus “one claw”
Classification: Tribe: Mononykini
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Mongolia – Nemegt Formation
Size: 1 meter long
Diet: Insectivore?
Genus: Gallimimus “Chicken mimic”
Classification: Family: Ornithomimidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Mongolia – Nemegt Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Omnivore?
 
Genus: Deinocheirus “Terrible hand”
Classification: Family: Deinocheiridae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Mongolia, Nemegt Formation
Size: 10 to 11 meters long
Diet: Omnivore?
 
Genus: Therizinosaurus “Scythe lizard”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Mongolia
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore?
Genus: Saurolophus “lizard crest
Classification: Tribe: Saurolophini
Time: Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada‭: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Nemegt Formation.‭ ‬Possibly also USA‭: ‬California‭ ‬-‭ ‬Moreno Formation and China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Heilongjiang Province
Size: 10 to 12 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Saichania ‭”‬beautiful one‭”
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Mongolia,‭ ‬Nemegt Basin‭ ‬-‭ ‬Barun Goyot Formation
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

South American Maastrichtian Stage Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Genus: Diplomoceras 
Name meaning: “Double horn”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Lower Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian)
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Montealtosuchus “crocodile from Monte Alto municipality
Classification: Suborder: Notosuchia, Family: Peirosauridae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Brazil – Adamantina Formartion
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Carnotaurus “Meat eating bull”
Classification: Subfamily: Carnotaurinae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Argentina, Chubut Province – La Colonia Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Orkoraptor Toothed river thief
Classification: Family: Neovenatoridae – Clade: Megaraptora
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Argentina 
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Austroraptor  “Southern thief”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae – Subfamily: Unenlagiinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian/Maastrichtian )
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Río Negro Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Allen Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Saltasaurus “Salta lizard”
Classification: Family: Saltasauridea
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian/Maastrichtian)
Locality: Argentina, Salta Province – Lecho Formation
Size: 12 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Dreadnoughtus “Fearing nothing”
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian/Maastrichtian)
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Santa Cruz Province
Size: 26 meters long, possibly larger.
Diet: Herbivore

Madagascar Maastrichtian Stage Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

Genus: Majungasaurus “Majunga dome lizard
Classification: Subfamily: Carnotaurinae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Madagascar – Maevarano Formation
Size: 7 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Masiakasaurus“Vicious lizard”
Classification: Family: Noasauridae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Madagascar, Maevarano Formation
Size: 1.8 to 2 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
 

Europe Maastrichtian Stage Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

Genus: Baculites
Name meaning: “walking stick rock”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: North America , Europe (Turonian to Campanian)
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Diplomoceras 
Name meaning: “Double horn”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Lower Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian)
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name:“Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: ‬Ichthyodectiformes – Family: Ichthyodectidae 
Type: Carnivore/Piscivore
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada
Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Mosasaurus (‭”Meuse lizard‭ ‬-‭ ‬after the Meuse River‭”)
Classification: Tribe: ‬Mosasaurini.
Known locations: Western Europe and North America
Time period: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Size: 15 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Axelrodichthys
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Order: Coelacanthiformes
Known locations: Brazil, North Africa, and Mexico (Aptian to Albian) – Morrocco (Cenomanian) – Madagascar (Coniacian to Santonian) – France (Lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian),
Time period: Cretaceous (Albian to Santonian)
Size: 1 to 2 meters long (depending on species)
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Pyroraptor “fire thief”
Classification: Family: Dromaeosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Late Campanian/Early Maastrichtian)
Locality: France,‭ ‬Provence
Size:Uncertain due to incomplete remains
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus: Ampelosaurus “Vine lizard”
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian)
Locality: France‭ ‬-‭ ‬Marnes Rouges Inférieures Formation.
Size: 16 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

Australian Maastrichtian Stage Late Cretaceous: 72.1 to 66.0 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Genus: Diplomoceras 
Name meaning: “Double horn”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Lower Cretaceous (Campanian and Maastrichtian)
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Name: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: ‬Ichthyodectiformes – Family: Ichthyodectidae 
Type: Carnivore/Piscivore
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada
Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)

<< Back to Cretaceous Campanian Stage

Geology Time Scale Homepage

Back to Cretaceous Period Homepage

Next to Paleocene Epoch >>