Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Turonian Stage

(93.9 to 89.8 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Turonian Age/Stage

Late Cretaceous: 93.9 to 89.8 million years ago

The Turonian Epoch was named in 1842 by French paleontologist Alcide d’Orbigny, after the French city of Tours in a region of Touraine.

North American Turonian Stage Late Cretaceous: 93.9 to 89.8 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Dolichorhynchops‭ “Long-nosed eye‭‭‭”
Classification: Order: ‬Plesiosauria – Family: Polycotylidae
Size: 3‭ ‬meters long
Known locations: Canada,‭ ‬Saskatchewan;‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Kansas;‭ ‬Smokey Hill Chalk‭ & ‬Fort Hays Limestone,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tropic Shale
Time period: Cretaceous (Turonian to Campanian)
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Nothronychus “slothful claw”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Late Cenomanian to Early Turonian)
Locality: USA, New Mexico – Moreno Hill Formation, and Utah – Tropic Shale Formation
Size: 4.5 to 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Zuniceratops Zuni-horned face
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Clade: Ceratopsomorpha
Time: Cretaceous (Turonian)
Locality: U.S.A., New Mexico, Moreno Hill Formation.
Size: 3.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Champsosaurus  crocodile lizard
Classification: Order: Choristodera, Family: Champsosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Turonian) to Paleocene (Thanetian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 1.5 to 3.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Asian Turonian Stage Late Cretaceous: 93.9 to 89.8 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Nanshiungosaurus “Nanshiung lizard”
Classification: Superfamily: Therizinosauroidea
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Campanian)
Locality:  China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Chijinbao Formation,‭ ‬Nanxiong Formation,‭ ‬Yuanpu Formation.
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

South American Turonian Stage Late Cretaceous: 93.9 to 89.8 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Megaraptor Giant Thief‭
Classification: Family: Neovenatoridae – Clade: Megaraptora
Time: Late Cretaceous (Turonian)
Locality: Argentina – Portezuelo Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore

African Turonian Stage Late Cretaceous: 93.9 to 89.8 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene.
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Spinosaurus “Spine lizard”
Classification: Subfamily: Spinosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian)
Locality: North Africa, particularly Egypt – Bahariya Formation, and Morocco – Kem Kem Beds
Size: 12.6 to 18 meters long
Diet: Piscivore/Carnivore

European Turonian Stage Late Cretaceous: 93.9 to 89.8 million years ago

Genus: Baculites
Name meaning: “walking stick rock”
Classification: Order: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ancyloceratina
Locality: North America , Europe (Turonian to Campanian)
Time: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Maastrichtian)
Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Scapanorhynchus Spade snout“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Mitsukurinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Cretaceous (Aptian to Maastrichtian ) to Paleogene
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Cretoxyrhina Cretaceous jaws“‬
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Cretoxyrhinidae
Locations: Worldwide
Time period: Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Campanian)
Size: Up to‭ ‬7‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

<< Back to Cretaceous Cenomanian Stage

Geology Time Scale Homepage

Back to Cretaceous Period Homepage

Next to Cretaceous Coniacian Stage >>