Geologic Time Scale: Cretaceous Valanginian Stage

(139.8 to 132.2 million years ago)

The Cretaceous Period is the third and final period of the Mesozoic and the longest period of the Phanerozoic Eon. The period as first defined by Belgian geologist Jean d’Omalius d’Halloy in 1822 as the Terrain Cretace, using starta (layers) in the Paris Basin and names for the extensive beds of chalk(calcium carbonate deposited by the shells of marine invertebrates, principally coccoliths), found in the upper Cretaceous of Western Europe. The name is derived from the Latin creta meaning “chalk”, which is abundant in the later half of the period.

During the Cretaceous, the late-Paleozoic-to-early-Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangaea completed its tectonic breakup into the present-day continents, although their positions were substantially different at the time. The Earth’s Climate was warmer than today, and sea level was much higher. The end of the Cretaceous period (along with the Mesozoic) ended with the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event (formerly known as the KT boundary). 

Valanginian Age/Stage

Early Cretaceous: 139.8 to 132.2 million years ago

The Valanginian Epoch was first named in 1853 by Edouard Desor after the Valangin, a small town north of Neuchatel in the Jura Mountains of Switzerland. THe oldest angiospermae (flowering plants) cant be dated back to the late Valanginian.

European Valanginian Stage Early Cretaceous: 139.8 to 132.2 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Becklespinax “Beckle’s spine”
Classification: Infraorder: Carnosauria
Time: Early Cretaceous
Locality: England – Sussex
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Hylaeosaurus “forest lizard”
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Valanginian)
Locality: England
Size: 3 to 7.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

South American Valanginian Stage Early Cretaceous: 139.8 to 132.2 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Bajadasaurus Bajada lizard
Classification: Family: Dicraeosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Berriasian to Valanginian)
Locality: Argentina – Bajada Colorada Formation
Size: Uncertain meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

Asia Valanginian Stage Early Cretaceous: 139.8 to 132.2 million years ago

Genus: Belemnitina
Common name: “Belemnites”
Classification: Superoder: Belemnoidea – Order: Belemnitida
Locality: Worldwide
Time: Late Triassic to End Cretaceous
Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Wuerhosaurus “Wuerho lizaed”
Classification: Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)
Locality: China,: ‬Xinjiang‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tugulu Group,‭ ‬Inner Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ejinhoro Formation
Size: 5 to 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

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