Geologic Time Scale: Miocene Epoch

(23.03 to 5.333 million years ago)

The Miocene Epoch was named by Scottish geologist Charles Lyell; the name comes from the Greek words meaning “less” and “new” and translating to mean “less recent” because it has 18% fewer modern marine invertebrates than the Pliocene has. The Miocene is preceded by the Oligocene and is followed by the Pliocene.

During the Early miocene the Arabian Peninsula collided with Eurasia, severing the connection between the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean, and allowing a faunal interchange to occur between Eurasia and Africa, including athe dispersal of proboscideans into Eurasia. Apes first arose and diversified in the Early Miocene, by the end of the Miocene the ancestor of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees.

Messinian Age/Stage

7.246 to 5.333 million years ago

The Messinian Stage was named after the Italian city of Messina on Sicily, where the Messinian evaporite deposit is of the same age by Swiss stratigrapher Karl Mayer-Eymer in 1867.

North American Messinian Stage 7.246 to 5.333 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ceratogaulus sp.
Common name: Horned gopher
Classification: Family: Mylagaulidae
Time: Late Miocene to Pliocene
Range: Great Plains of North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Amebelodon “Shovel tooth”
Classification: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Amebelodontitdae (“shovel-tuskers”)
Time: Miocene Epoch (Tortonian to Messinian) 9 – 6 mya
Locations: North American Great Plains and Gulf Coast
Size: 2.5 (8.20 ft) Height and  3m (9.85ft) Length
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

South American Messinian Stage 7.246 to 5.333 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Macrauchenia ‭”‬Long llama‭”
Known locations: Argentina,‭ ‬Bolivia,‭ ‬Chile and Venezuela
Time period: Miocene (Late Tortonian) to Pleistocene (Tarantian‭)
Size: 3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Herbivore

European Messinian Stage 7.246 to 5.333 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

African Messinian Stage 7.246 to 5.333 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Asian Messinian Stage 7.246 to 5.333 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Tortonian Age/Stage

11.63 to 7.246 million years ago

The Tortonian Stage was named after the Italian city of Tortona in the region Piedmont by Swiss stratigrapher Karl Mayer-Eymer in 1858.

North American Tortonian Stage 11.63 to 7.246 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ceratogaulus sp.
Common name: Horned gopher
Classification: Family: Mylagaulidae
Time: Late Miocene to Pliocene
Range: Great Plains of North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Amebelodon “Shovel tooth”
Classification: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Amebelodontitdae (“shovel-tuskers”)
Time: Miocene Epoch (Tortonian to Messinian) 9 – 6 mya
Locations: North American Great Plains and Gulf Coast
Size: 2.5 (8.20 ft) Height and  3m (9.85ft) Length
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

South American Tortonian Stage 11.63 to 7.246 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Macrauchenia ‭”‬Long llama‭”
Known locations: Argentina,‭ ‬Bolivia,‭ ‬Chile and Venezuela
Time period: Miocene (Late Tortonian) to Pleistocene (Tarantian‭)
Size: 3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Herbivore

European Tortonian Stage 11.63 to 7.246 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

African Tortonian Stage 11.63 to 7.246 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dryopithecus fontani
Common name: None
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Dryopithecini
Time: Middle Miocene (Serravallian) to Late Miocene (Tortonian)
Location: Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Asian Tortonian Stage 11.63 to 7.246 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Serravallian Age/Stage

13.82 to 11.63 million years ago

The Serravallian Stage was named after the town of Serravalle Scrivia in northern Italy by Italian geologist Lorenzo Pareto in 1865.

North American Serravallian Stage 13.82 to 11.63 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

South American Serravallian Stage 13.82 to 11.63 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Kelenken “After a diety”
Classification:
Order: Cariamiformes – Family: Phorusrhacidae – Subfamily: Phorusrhacinae
Time:
Middle Miocene (Colloncuran)
Locality: Argentina
Size:
2 to 3 meters tall
Diet:
Carnivore

European Serravallian Stage 13.82 to 11.63 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

African Serravallian Stage 13.82 to 11.63 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dryopithecus fontani
Common name: None
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Dryopithecini
Time: Middle Miocene (Serravallian) to Late Miocene (Tortonian)
Location: Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Asian Serravallian Stage 13.82 to 11.63 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Langhian Age/Stage

15.97 to 13.82 million years ago

The Langhian Stage is defined by the species of foraminifer (plankton). A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the Langhian Stage was not yet established in 2009.

 North American Langhian Stage 15.97 to 13.82 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Moropus ‭”Slow/sloth foot‭”
Classification: Order: ‬Perissodactyla – Family:‭ ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Schizotheriinae.
Locations: Across the United States.
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Langhian)
Size: 2.4‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

South American Langhian Stage 15.97 to 13.82 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Kelenken “After a diety”
Classification:
Order: Cariamiformes – Family: Phorusrhacidae – Subfamily: Phorusrhacinae
Time:
Middle Miocene (Colloncuran)
Locality: Argentina
Size:
2 to 3 meters tall
Diet:
Carnivore

European Langhian Stage 15.97 to 13.82 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

African Langhian Stage 15.97 to 13.82 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Asian Langhian Stage 15.97 to 13.82 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore

Burdigalian Age/Stage

20.44 to 15.97 million years ago

The Burdigalian Stage was named after Burdigala, the Latin name for the city of Bordeaux, France by Charles Deperet in 1892.

North American Burdigalian Stage 20.44 to 15.97 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Daeodon ‭”‬Hostile tooth‭” or‭ “‬Destructive tooth‭”
Known locations: North America
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Burdigalian)
Size: 3.6‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬1.8‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Diet: Carnivore/Omnivore‭?
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Moropus ‭”Slow/sloth foot‭”
Classification: Order: ‬Perissodactyla – Family:‭ ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Schizotheriinae.
Locations: Across the United States.
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Langhian)
Size: 2.4‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

European Burdigalian Stage 20.44 to 15.97 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

African Burdigalian Stage 20.44 to 15.97 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

Asian Burdigalian Stage 20.44 to 15.97 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Classification: Order: Perissodactyla – Family: ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

Aquitanian Age/Stage

23.03 to 20.44 million years ago

The Aquitanian Stage was named after the region Aquitaine in France by Swiss stratigrapher Karl Mayer-Eymar in 1858.

North American Aquitanian Stage 23.03 to 20.44 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Daeodon ‭”‬Hostile tooth‭” or‭ “‬Destructive tooth‭”
Known locations: North America
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Burdigalian)
Size: 3.6‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬1.8‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Diet: Carnivore/Omnivore‭?
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Moropus ‭”Slow/sloth foot‭”
Classification: Order: ‬Perissodactyla – Family:‭ ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Schizotheriinae.
Locations: Across the United States.
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Langhian)
Size: 2.4‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

European Aquitanian Stage 23.03 to 20.44 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore

African Aquitanian Stage 23.03 to 20.44 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore

Asian Aquitanian Stage 23.03 to 20.44 million years ago

Genus and species: Otodus. megalodonBig tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Lamniformes -‭ ‬Family: Otodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Early Mocene to Early Pliocene
Size: Up to‭ ‬15 to 17‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hyaenodon horridus
Name meaning: Hyena-tooth
Common name: Hyaenodon
Classification: Order: Hyaenodonta – Family: Hyaenodontidae
Time: Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene
Range: Eurasia, Africa, and North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore

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