Geologic Time Scale: Permian Period

(298.9 to 251.9 million years ago)

The concept of the Permian Period was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison (Scottish geologist who served as director-general of the British Geological Survey from 1855 until his death in 1871), who named it after the region of Perm in Russia. 

The Permian Period ended with the Permian-Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth’s history (which is the last of the three or four crises that occurred in the Permian), in which 81% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out, associated with the eruption of the Siberian Traps (Massive eruptive event in Russia that formed the traps is one of the largest known volcanic events in the last 500 million years).

Changhsingian Age/Stage

Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

The Changhsingian Stage was named in 1970 after Changsing Limestone of Changxing in northern Zhejiang, China. It represents the final stage of the Permian Period as well as the end of the Paleozoic Era. The Changhsingian witnessed the greatest extinction event of the  in the fossil record. After this, life had a “restart” in the following Mesazoic Era.

African Changhsingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Hybodus Humped tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Hybodontiformes -‭ ‬Family: Hybodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Permian (Changhsingian) to Cretaceous (Berriasian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Peltobatrachus ‭”‬Shield frog‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Peltobatrachidae
Time period: Late Permian (Capitanian to Changhsingian)
Known locations: Tanzania
Size: 70 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore
Genus: Trochosaurus.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida – Clade: Therapsida – Family: Trochosuchidae.
Known locations: South Africa.
Time period: Late Permian.
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Unavailable.
Genus: Dicynodon ‭”‬Two dog teeth‭”‬.
Classification: Family: Dicynodontidae.
Known locations: China,‭ ‬Russia,‭ ‬South Africa,‭ ‬Tanzania.
Time period: Late Permian (Changhsingian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Average‭ ‬1.2‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬but some variation between species.
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.

Asian Changhsingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Hybodus Humped tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Hybodontiformes -‭ ‬Family: Hybodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Permian (Changhsingian) to Cretaceous (Berriasian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Dicynodon ‭”‬Two dog teeth‭”‬.
Classification: Family: Dicynodontidae.
Known locations: China,‭ ‬Russia,‭ ‬South Africa,‭ ‬Tanzania.
Time period: Late Permian (Changhsingian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Average‭ ‬1.2‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬but some variation between species.
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.
Genus: Scutosaurus “shield lizard
Classification: Family: Pareiasauridae
Time: Late Permian (Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian)
Locality: Russia
Size: 2.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

South American Changhsingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Hybodus Humped tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Hybodontiformes -‭ ‬Family: Hybodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Permian (Changhsingian) to Cretaceous (Berriasian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Dicynodon ‭”‬Two dog teeth‭”‬.
Classification: Family: Dicynodontidae.
Known locations: China,‭ ‬Russia,‭ ‬South Africa,‭ ‬Tanzania.
Time period: Late Permian (Changhsingian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: Average‭ ‬1.2‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬but some variation between species.
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.

European Changhsingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Hybodus Humped tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Hybodontiformes -‭ ‬Family: Hybodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Permian (Changhsingian) to Cretaceous (Berriasian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

North American Changhsingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Hybodus Humped tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Hybodontiformes -‭ ‬Family: Hybodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Permian (Changhsingian) to Cretaceous (Berriasian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Antartica and Australian Changhsingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 254.14 to 252.902 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Hybodus Humped tooth“‬.
Classification: Order: Hybodontiformes -‭ ‬Family: Hybodontidae.
Locations: Worldwide.
Time period: Permian (Changhsingian) to Cretaceous (Berriasian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.

Wuchiapingian Age/Stage

Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

The Wuchiapingian Stage was named in 1962 after the Lopingian Series of southwestern China was divided in the Changhsingian and Wuchiapingian Formations.

North American Wuchiapingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Sarcoprion“‬Flesh saw“‬.
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Greenland.
Time period: Permian (Wuchiapingian).
Size: Uncertain.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

African Wuchiapingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Peltobatrachus ‭”‬Shield frog‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Peltobatrachidae
Time period: Late Permian (Capitanian to Changhsingian)
Known locations: Tanzania
Size: 70 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.
Genus: Trochosaurus.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida – Clade: Therapsida – Family: Trochosuchidae.
Known locations: South Africa.
Time period: Late Permian.
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Unavailable.
Genus: Lycaenops ‭”Wolf face‭”‬.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida – Clade: Therapsida – Clade: Gorgonopsia
Known locations: South Africa.
Time period: Permian (Wuchiapingian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬meter long.
Genus: Dinogorgon ‭”Terrible Gorgon‭”‬.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida – Clade: Therapsida – Clade: Gorgonopsia
Known locations: Tanzania and South Africa.
Time period: Permian (Wuchiapingian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: 2 meters long.

Asian Wuchiapingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Scutosaurus “shield lizard
Classification: Family: Pareiasauridae
Time: Late Permian (Wuchiapingian to Changhsingian)
Locality: Russia
Size: 2.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Inostrancevia ‭”After Aleksandr Inostrantsev‭”‬.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida – Clade: Therapsida – Clade: Gorgonopsia
Known locations: Russia.
Time period: Permian (Wuchiapingian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: 3.5‭ ‬meters long.‭ 
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.

European Wuchiapingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

South American Wuchiapingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.

Antartica and Australian Wuchiapingian Stage Lopingian (Late Permian): 259.51 to 254.14 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Lystrosaurus‭ “‬Shovel lizard‭”.
Classification: Family: ‬Lystrosauridae.
Known locations: South Africa, Antarctica,‭ ‬China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Mongolia and Russia.
Time period: Late Permian to the Early Triassic.
Type: Herbivore.
Size: Between 0.6 and 2.5 meters long. Average about 0.9 meters long.

Capitanian Age/Stage

Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 264.28 to 259.51 million years ago

The Capitanian Stage was named in 1904 by George Burr Richardson after the Capitan Reef in the Guadalupe Mountains of west Texas, United States.

North American Capitanian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 264.28 to 259.51 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

European Capitanian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 264.28 to 259.51 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

African Capitanian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 264.28 to 259.51 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Peltobatrachus ‭”‬Shield frog‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Peltobatrachidae
Time period: Late Permian (Capitanian to Changhsingian)
Known locations: Tanzania
Size: 70 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore
Genus: Moschops‭ “Calf face‭”‬.
Classification: Clade: ‬Therapsida – Suborder: Dinocephalia‭ – Infraorder: Tapinocephalia – Family: Tapinocephalidae.
Species: M.‭ capensisu, (type).
Known locations: South Africa – Karoo.
Time period: Permian (Wordian to Capitanisan).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 2.7 meters long.

Asian Capitanian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 264.28 to 259.51 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Australian Capitanian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 264.28 to 259.51 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Wordian Age/Stage

Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 266.90 to 264.28 million years ago

The Wordian Stage was named in 1916 by Johan August Udden after the Word Formation of the North American Permian Basin.

North American Wordian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 266.90 to 264.28 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Orthacanthus Vertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

European Wordian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 266.90 to 264.28 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.

Asian Wordian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 266.90 to 264.28 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Estemmenosuchus ‭”‬Crowned crocodile‭”‬.
Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Synapsida,‭ ‬Therapsida,‭ ‬Dinocephalia,‭ ‬Estemmenosuchidae.
Known locations: Russia,‭ ‬Perm region.
Time period: Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: E. uralensis about 4.5 meters long, E. mirabilis about 3 meters long.

Australian Wordian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 266.90 to 264.28 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Roadian Age/Stage

Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 273.01 to 266.90 million years ago

The Roadian Stage was named in 1968 after Road Canyon Formation in Brewster County, Texas.

North American Roadian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 273.01 to 266.90 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Dimetrodon “Two measures of teeth”.
Known locations: Germany. USA, New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae, Subfamily: Sphenacodontinae.
Time period: Permian (Asselian to Roadian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Depending upon the species, between 1.7 and 4.6 meters long.

European Roadian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 273.01 to 266.90 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Dimetrodon “Two measures of teeth”.
Known locations: Germany. USA, New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae, Subfamily: Sphenacodontinae.
Time period: Permian (Asselian to Roadian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Depending upon the species, between 1.7 and 4.6 meters long.

Asian Roadian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 273.01 to 266.90 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Australian Roadian Stage Guadalupian (Middle Permian): 273.01 to 266.90 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Kungurian Age/Stage

Cisuralian (Early Permian): 283.50 to 273.01 million years ago

The Kungurian Stage was named in 1890 by Russian geologist Alexandr Antonovich Stukenberg after the Russian city of Kungur in Perm Krai.

North American Kungurian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 283.50 to 273.01 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Eryops‭ ‭”‬Drawn out face‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Eryopidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Lower Permian (Kungurian)
Known locations: USA
Size: 1.5 to 2‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Sphenacodon “Wedge tooth”.
Genus pronounced: Sfee-nack-oh-don.
Named By: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1878.
Species: S. ferox (type), S. britannicus, S. ferocior.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae.
Known locations: USA, Texas and New Mexico.
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Permian (Kungurian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: About 2.5 meters long.
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Dimetrodon “Two measures of teeth”.
Known locations: Germany. USA, New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae, Subfamily: Sphenacodontinae.
Time period: Permian (Asselian to Roadian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Depending upon the species, between 1.7 and 4.6 meters long.

European Kungurian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 283.50 to 273.01 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Dimetrodon “Two measures of teeth”.
Known locations: Germany. USA, New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae, Subfamily: Sphenacodontinae.
Time period: Permian (Asselian to Roadian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Depending upon the species, between 1.7 and 4.6 meters long.

Asian Kungurian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 283.50 to 273.01 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Australian Kungurian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 283.50 to 273.01 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Artinskian Age/Stage

Cisuralian (Early Permian): 290.10 to 283.50 million years ago

The Artinskian Stage was named in 1874 by Alexander Karpinsky after the Russian city of Arti (formerly Artinsk) in the southern Ural Mountains.

North American Artinskian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 290.10 to 283.50 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Eryops‭ ‭”‬Drawn out face‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Eryopidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Lower Permian (Kungurian)
Known locations: USA
Size: 1.5 to 2‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Sphenacodon “Wedge tooth”.
Genus pronounced: Sfee-nack-oh-don.
Named By: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1878.
Species: S. ferox (type), S. britannicus, S. ferocior.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae.
Known locations: USA, Texas and New Mexico.
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Permian (Kungurian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: About 2.5 meters long.
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Dimetrodon “Two measures of teeth”.
Known locations: Germany. USA, New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae, Subfamily: Sphenacodontinae.
Time period: Permian (Asselian to Roadian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Depending upon the species, between 1.7 and 4.6 meters long.

European Artinskian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 290.10 to 283.50 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: OrthacanthusVertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.
Genus: Dimetrodon “Two measures of teeth”.
Known locations: Germany. USA, New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae, Subfamily: Sphenacodontinae.
Time period: Permian (Asselian to Roadian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: Depending upon the species, between 1.7 and 4.6 meters long.

Asian Artinskian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 290.10 to 283.50 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Australian Artinskian Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 290.10 to 283.50 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Sakmarian Age/Stage

Cisuralian (Early Permian): 293.52 to 290.10 million years ago

The Sakmarian Stage was named in 1874 by Alexander Karpinsky after a tributary to the Ural River, the Sakmarian River in the Ural Mountains.

North American Sakmarian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 293.52 to 290.10 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Orthacanthus Vertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Eryops‭ ‭”‬Drawn out face‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Eryopidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Lower Permian (Kungurian)
Known locations: USA
Size: 1.5 to 2‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Sphenacodon “Wedge tooth”.
Genus pronounced: Sfee-nack-oh-don.
Named By: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1878.
Species: S. ferox (type), S. britannicus, S. ferocior.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae.
Known locations: USA, Texas and New Mexico.
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Permian (Kungurian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: About 2.5 meters long.
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.

European Sakmarian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 293.52 to 290.10 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Orthacanthus Vertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.

Asian Sakmarian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 293.52 to 290.10 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Austarlian Sakmarian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 293.52 to 290.10 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

Asselian Age/Stage

Cisuralian (Early Permian): 298.9 to 293.52 million years ago

The Asselian Stage was named in 1954 by Russian stratigrapher V.E. Ruzhenchev after the Assel River in the southern Ural Mountains of Kazakhstan and Bashkortostan.

North American Asselian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 298.9 to 293.52 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Orthacanthus Vertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Kasimovian) to Permian (Wuchiapingian)
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Eryops‭ ‭”‬Drawn out face‭‭”
Classification: Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Family: Eryopidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Lower Permian (Kungurian)
Known locations: USA
Size: 1.5 to 2‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Sphenacodon “Wedge tooth”.
Genus pronounced: Sfee-nack-oh-don.
Named By: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1878.
Species: S. ferox (type), S. britannicus, S. ferocior.
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Family: Sphenacodontidae.
Known locations: USA, Texas and New Mexico.
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Permian (Kungurian).
Diet: Carnivore.
Size: About 2.5 meters long.
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.

European Asselian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 298.9 to 293.52 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Orthacanthus Vertical spike“‬.
Classification: Order: Xenacanthida -‭ ‬Family: Orthacanthidae.
Locations: Europe and ‬North America.
Time period: Devonian (Emsian) to Triassic (Carnian).
Size: Up to‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Edaphosaurus‭ “Ground lizard‭”‬.‭
Classification: Clade: Synapsida, Clade: Sphenacomorpha, Family: Edaphosauridae.
Known locations: Germany.‭ ‬Czech Republic. Slovakia. USA – New Mexico – Oklahoma – Texas – West Virginia.
Time period: Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to the Permian (Wordian).
Diet: Herbivore.
Size: 1‭ ‬to‭ ‬3.5‭ ‬meters depending upon the species.

Asian Asselian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 298.9 to 293.52 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Xenacanthus“‬Foreign spike”‬
Classification: ‬Order: Xenacanthida – Family: ‬Xenacanthidae
Locations: USA,‭ ‬Europe, and India
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic
Size: Up to 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Australian Asselian Age/Stage Cisuralian (Early Permian): 298.9 to 293.52 million years ago

Common name: Ammonite
Classification: Suborder: Ammonitida – Suborder: Ammonoidae
Locality:
Worldwide
Time range: Devonian to End Cretaceous
Genus: Helicoprion“‬Spiral saw“‬
Classification: ‬Order: Eugeneodontida – Family: ‬Agassizodontidae.
Locations: Australia, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, USA.
Time period: Late Devonian to end Triassic.
Size: 7.5 to 3 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore

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