Prehistoric Models: Amphibians

The term Amphibian comes from the Greek word “amphibios” meaning “to live a double life” in reference to the stages of their life cycle. Amphibians are more advance then lob finned fish by having lungs and legs.

The first Amphibians appear during the Late Devonian some 370 million years ago and persist to this day. All amphibians lay eggs in water and the young undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to air breathing adults, most of which have lungs. To see my amphibian fossils click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Eotetrapodiformes – Clade: Elpistostegalia – Clade: Stegocephalia – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia/Batrachomorpha – Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Ichthyostegalia

(earliest tetrapods)

Devonian

Genus: Acanthostega ‭”‬Spiny roof”
Genus pronounced: Eh-ry-ops
Species: A. gunneri
Named By: Erik Jarvik – 1952
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Ichthyostegalia – Family: Acanthostegidae
Time period: Devonian (Famennian)
Known locations: Eastern Greenland
Size: 60 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Ichthyostega ‭”‬Fish roof”
Genus pronounced: Ik-fee-o-stay-gah
Species:I. stensioei (type),I.watsoni, I.egili, I.kochi
Named By: Gunnar Säve-Söderbergh – 1932
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Ichthyostegalia – Family: Ichthyostegidae
Time period: Devonian (Famennian)
Known locations: Eastern Greenland
Size: 1.5 meters long
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Temnospondyli

(primitive amphibians)

Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) to Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Genus: Eryops‭ ‭”‬Drawn out face‭‭”
Genus pronounced: Eh-ry-ops
Species: E.‭ ‬megacephalus
Named By: Edward Drinker Cope‭ ‬-‭ ‬1877
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Superfamily: ‬Eryopoidea – ‬Family: Eryopidae
Time period: Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Lower Permian (Kungurian)
Known locations: USA
Size: 1.5 to 2‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Mastodonsaurus ‭”‬Breast tooth lizard‭”
Genus pronounced: Mas-toe-don-sore-us
Species: M.‭ ‬giganteus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬jaegeri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬torvus
Named By: G.‭ ‬F.‭ ‬Jaegar‭ ‬-‭ ‬1828
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli, – Suborder: ‬Stereospondyli – Clade: ‬Capitosauria – ‬Family: Mastodonsauridae
Time period: Triassic (Anisian to Rhaetian)
Known locations: England‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bromsgrove Sandstone Formation,‭ ‬Wales‭ ‬-‭ ‬Sully Beds Formation,‭ ‬Germany‭ ‬-‭ ‬Erfurt Formation,‭ ‬and Russia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bukobay Formation
Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore
Genus: Peltobatrachus ‭”‬Shield frog‭‭”
Genus pronounced: Pel-toe-ba-track-us
Species: P. Pustulatus
Named By: Panchen – 1959
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Suborder: ‬Stereospondyli – ‬Family: Peltobatrachidae
Time period: Late Permian (Capitanian to Changhsingian)
Known locations: Tanzania
Size: 70 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lepospondyli

(early tetrapods)

Early Carboniferous to Late Permian

Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”
Genus pronounced: Dip-low-cawl-us
Species: D.‭ ‬salamandroides(type),D. brevirostris,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬magnicornis
Named By: Edward Drinker Cope‭ ‬-‭ ‬1882
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Node: Holospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae
Time periodPermian
Known locations: USA, Texas
Size: 1‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lissamphibia – Superorder: Batrachia – Clade: Salientia – Order: Anura

(modern amphibians – frogs)

Early Jurassic to Holocene

Genus and species: Dendrobaes auratus
Common name: Green and black poison dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Central America and Columbia
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore (mites and insects)
Genus, species, and subspecies: Dendrobates tinctorius azureus
Common name: Blue poison dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Sipaliwini Savanna, Southern Suriname of northern Brazil
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Oophaga pumilio
Common name: Strawberry poison-dart frog
Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae
Range: Central America
Time: Holocene 
Diet:
Insectivore
Genus and species: Atelopus zeteki
Common name: Panamanian golden frog, cerro campana stubfoot toad
Classification: Family: Bufonidae
Range: Panama
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eleutherodactylus jasperi
Common name: Golden coqui
Classification: Family: Eleutherodactylidae
Range: Puerto Rico (extinct)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Ceratophrys ornata
Common name: Blue Argentine horned frog
Classification: Family: Ceratophyidae
Range: Argentina, Uryuay, and Brazil
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Agalychnis callidryas
Common name: Red-eyed tree frog
Classification: Family: Phyllomedusidae
Range: Central America (Neotropical rainforest)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Lithobates catesbeianus
Common name: American bullfrog
Classification: Family: Ranidae
Range: Eastern North America
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore
Genus and species: Lithobates pipoens
Common name: Northern leopard frog
Classification: Family: Ranidae
Range: Canada and United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lissamphibia – Superorder: Batrachia – Clade: Caudata – Order: Urodela

(modern amphibians – salamanders)

Late Jurassic to Holocene

Genus and species: Pseudotriton ruber
Common name: Red Salamander
Classification: Family: Plethodontidae
Range: Eastern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Preteus anguinus
Common name: Olm Salamander/Cave Salamander
Classification: Order: Urodela – Family: Proteidae
Range: Caves in the Dinaric Alps
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Necturus maculosus
Common name: Mudpuppy
Classification: Family: Necturus
Range: Central United States and Southern Canada
Time: Paleocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ambystoma mexicanum
Common name: Leucistic axolot/Mexican Salamander
Classification: Order: Urodela – Family: Ambystomatidae
Range: Mexico
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lissamphibia – Order: Gymnophiona

(modern amphibians – caecilians)

Late Triassic to Holocene

No toys or models made…

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