Prehistoric Models: Amphibians

The term Amphibian comes from the Greek word “amphibios” meaning “to live a double life” in reference to the stages of their life cycle. Amphibians are more advance then lob finned fish by having lungs and legs.

The first Amphibians appear during the Late Devonian some 370 million years ago and persist to this day. All amphibians lay eggs in water and the young undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to air breathing adults, most of which have lungs. To see my amphibian fossils click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Eotetrapodiformes – Clade: Elpistostegalia – Clade: Stegocephalia – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia/Batrachomorpha – Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Ichthyostegalia

(earliest tetrapods)

Devonian

Genus: Acanthostega ‭”‬Spiny roof”

Genus pronounced: Eh-ry-ops

Species: A. gunneri

Named By: Erik Jarvik – 1952

Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Ichthyostegalia – Family: Acanthostegidae

Time period: Devonian (Famennian)

Known locations: Eastern Greenland

Size: 60 centimeters long

Diet: Carnivore

Genus: Ichthyostega ‭”‬Fish roof”

Genus pronounced: Ik-fee-o-stay-gah

Species:I. stensioei (type),I.watsoni, I.egili, I.kochi

Named By: Gunnar Säve-Söderbergh – 1932

Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Ichthyostegalia – Family: Ichthyostegidae

Time period: Devonian (Famennian)

Known locations: Eastern Greenland

Size: 1.5 meters long

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Labyrinthodontia – Order: Temnospondyli

(primitive amphibians)

Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) to Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Genus: Eryops‭ ‭”‬Drawn out face‭‭”

Genus pronounced: Eh-ry-ops

Species: E.‭ ‬megacephalus

Named By: Edward Drinker Cope‭ ‬-‭ ‬1877

Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Superfamily: ‬Eryopoidea – ‬Family: Eryopidae

Time period: Lower Permian

Known locations: USA

Size: 1.5 to 2‭ ‬meters long

Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Genus: Mastodonsaurus ‭”‬Breast tooth lizard‭”

Genus pronounced: Mas-toe-don-sore-us

Species: M.‭ ‬giganteus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬jaegeri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬torvus

Named By: G.‭ ‬F.‭ ‬Jaegar‭ ‬-‭ ‬1828

Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli, – Suborder: ‬Stereospondyli – Clade: ‬Capitosauria – ‬Family: Mastodonsauridae

Time period: Triassic (Anisian to Rhaetian)

Known locations: England‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bromsgrove Sandstone Formation,‭ ‬Wales‭ ‬-‭ ‬Sully Beds Formation,‭ ‬Germany‭ ‬-‭ ‬Erfurt Formation,‭ ‬and Russia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bukobay Formation

Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long

Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Genus: Peltobatrachus ‭”‬Shield frog‭‭”

Genus pronounced: Pel-toe-ba-track-us

Species: P. Pustulatus

Named By: Panchen – 1959

Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Order: Temnospondyli – Suborder: ‬Stereospondyli – ‬Family: Peltobatrachidae

Time period: Late Permian

Known locations: Tanzania

Size: 70 centimeters long

Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lepospondyli

(early tetrapods)

Early Carboniferous to Late Permian

Genus: Diplocaulus‭ ‭”‬Double stalk‭‭”

Genus pronounced: Dip-low-cawl-us

Species: D.‭ ‬salamandroides(type),D. brevirostris,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬magnicornis

Named By: Edward Drinker Cope‭ ‬-‭ ‬1882

Classification: Phylum: Chordata – Class: ‬Amphibia – ‬Subclass: Lepospondyli – Node: Holospondyli – Order: Nectridea – ‬Family: Diplocaulidae

Time periodPermian

Known locations: USA, Texas

Size: 1‭ ‬meters long

Diet: Carnivore/Piscivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lissamphibia – Superorder: Batrachia – Clade: Salientia – Order: Anura

(modern amphibians – frogs)

Early Jurassic to Holocene

Genus and species: Agalychnis callidryas

Common name: Red-eyed tree frog

Classification: Family: Phyllomedusidae

Range: Central America (Neotropical rainforest)

Time: Holocene

Diet: Insectivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Dendrobates tinctorius azureus

Common name: Blue poison dart frog

Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae

Range: Sipaliwini Savanna, Southern Suriname of northern Brazil

Time: Holocene

Diet: Insectivore

Genus and species: Oophaga pumilio

Common name: Strawberry poison-dart frog

Classification: Family: Dendrobatidae

Range: Central America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Insectivore

Genus and species: Lithobates catesbeianus

Common name: American bullfrog

Classification: Family: Ranidae

Range: Eastern North America

Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene

Diet: Insectivore/Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lissamphibia – Superorder: Batrachia – Clade: Caudata – Order: Urodela

(modern amphibians – salamanders)

Late Jurassic to Holocene

Genus and species: Pseudotriton ruber

Common name: Red Salamander

Classification: Family: Plethodontidae

Range: Eastern United States

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Preteus anguinus

Common name: Olm Salamander/Cave Salamander

Classification: Order: Urodela – Family: Proteidae

Range: Caves in the Dinaric Alps

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Necturus maculosus

Common name: Mudpuppy

Classification: Family: Necturus

Range: Central united States and Southern Canada

Time: Paleocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Subphylum: Vertebrata – Clade: Batrachomorpha – Class: Amphibia – Subclass: Lissamphibia – Order: Gymnophiona

(modern amphibians – caecilians)

Late Triassic to Holocene

No toys or models made…

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