Prehistoric Models: Artiodactyla

(even-toed hoofed animals)

Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).

Artiodactyla means “even finger/toe” in Ancient Greek. They are more are commonly called Even-toed ungulates first appeared in the early Eocene Epoch about 55 million years ago and persist as a group until the Holocene. Artiodactyls bear their weight equally on two of their five toes, the third and fourth. To see my fossil Artiodactyls click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Cervidae

(Deer)

 Early Oligocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose (bull)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervus elaphus
Common name: Red deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus
Common name: Reindeer or Caribou
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus
Common name: White-tailed deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North, Central and northern South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervinae canadensis
Common name: Elk
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Capreolus capreolus
Common name: Roe deer
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe to Middle East
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Antilocaprinae – Subfamily: Antilocaprinae – Tribe: Antilocaprini

(Prong Horn)

 Early Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Antilocapra americana
Common name: Pronghorn
Classification: Subfamily: Antilocaprini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Western North American
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Bovinae

(Bison, Cattle and Buffalo)

 Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Bison bison
Common name: Bison
Specimen: Bull, Cow, and Calf
Classification: Subfamily: Bovinae – Subtribe: Bovina
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore (Ruminants)
Genus and species: Syncerus caffer
Common name: African Cape buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central to South Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bubalus bubalis
Common name: Water buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Asia and Egypt
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus africanus
Common name: Ankole Cattle
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae, Subfamily: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus
Common name: Spanish Fighting Bull (Toro Bravo)
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Spain, Portugal,France, and Latin America (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Hybrid Bos (primigenius) taurus/indicus
Common name: American Brahman
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia, Brazil, and United States (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Texas Longhorn Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Tragelaphus eurycerus
Common name: Bongo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: West central Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Ovibos moschatus
Common name: Muskox or Musk Ox
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Alasaka, Northwest Territories, Yukon, norway, Sweden, and Siberia
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae

(Wildebeest, Hartebeest and Bonteboks)

 Late Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Eudorcas thomsonii
Common name: Thomson’s gazelle
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Antilopinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus
Common name: Blue Wildebeest
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus
Common name: Blue Wildebeest
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Hippotragine

(Grazing Antelopes)

 Late Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Oryx dammah
Common name: Scimitar oryx
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Hippotraginae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

(Goats and Sheep)

Late Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Oreamnos americanus
Common name: Mountain goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Ram or male sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Black Faced Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Valais Blacknose Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Capra nubiana
Common name: Nubian Ibex
Classification: Family: Caprinae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Middle East
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Suidae

(Pigs)

 Oligocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Phacochoerus africanus
Common name: Common Warthog
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Suborder: Suina

(Peccaries)

Late Eocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu
Common name: Collared peccary
Classification: Family: Tayassuidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America
Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Clade: Cetancodontamorpha – Family Entelodontidae

(Enteledonts)

 Late Eocene to Middle Miocene

 

Genus: Entelodon ‭”Perfect teeth‭”
Genus pronounced: En-tel-o-don.
Named By: Aymard‭ ‬-‭ ‬1846
Species: E.‭ ‬magnus‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬antiquus,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬aymardi,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬dirus,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬gobiensis,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬ronzonii
Known locations: Eurasia
Time period: Bartonian of the Eocene through to Rupelian of the Oligocene
Size: Around‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long
Diet: Omnivore‭?
Genus: Daeodon ‭”‬Hostile tooth‭” or‭ “‬Destructive tooth‭”
Genus pronounced: Day-oh-don.
Named By: Edward Drinker Cope‭ ‬-‭ ‬1879
Species: D.‭ ‬shoshonensis‭ (‬type‭)
Known locations: North America
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Burdigalian)
Size: 3.6‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬1.8‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Diet: Carnivore/Omnivore‭?

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Hippopotamidae

(Hippos)

 Middle Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Hippoptamus amphibius
Common name: Hippo
Classification: Family: Hippoptamidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South Africa and Nile River
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Superfamily: Giraffoidea – Family: Giraffidae 

(Giraffe)

 Middle Miocene to Holocene

 

Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Genus and species: Okapia johnstoni
Common name: Okapi
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central Africa
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Camelidae – Tribe Camelini 

(Camels)

 Pliocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Camelus bactrianus
Common name: Bactrian camel
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Camelus dromedarius
Common name: Dromedary
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East and western Asia
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Camelidae – Tribe Lamini

(Lamas and Alpacas)

 ??? to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Lama glama
Common name: Lama
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Western South America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Vicugna pacos
Common name: Alpaca
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central western South America
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Clade: Cetancodontamorpha 

(???)

 Eocene

 

Genus: Andrewsarchus (Andrew’s ruler)
Genus pronounced: An-dru-sar-kus
Named By: Discovered by Kan Chuen Pao in‭ ‬1923,‭ ‬Henry Fairfield Osborn wrote the description in‭ ‬1924
Species: A.‭ ‬mongoliensis‭ (‬type‭)
Known locations: Mongolia
Time period: ‬Eocene (Lutetian to Priabonian)
Size: Total size uncertain due to lack of remains.‭ ‬Skull is‭ ‬83‭ ‬centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Andrewsarchus (Andrew’s ruler)
Genus pronounced: An-dru-sar-kus
Named By: Discovered by Kan Chuen Pao in‭ ‬1923,‭ ‬Henry Fairfield Osborn wrote the description in‭ ‬1924
Species: A.‭ ‬mongoliensis‭ (‬type‭)
Known locations: Mongolia
Time period: ‬Eocene (Lutetian to Priabonian)
Size: Total size uncertain due to lack of remains.‭ ‬Skull is‭ ‬83‭ ‬centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore

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