Prehistoric Models: Artiodactyla

(even-toed hoofed animals)

Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).

Artiodactyla means “even finger/toe” in Ancient Greek. They are more are commonly called Even-toed ungulates first appeared in the early Eocene Epoch about 55 million years ago and persist as a group until the Holocene. Artiodactyls bear their weight equally on two of their five toes, the third and fourth. To see my fossil Artiodactyls click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Cervidae

(Deer)

 Early Oligocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Alces alces

Common name: Moose (bull)

Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Cervus elaphus

Common name: Red deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)

Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae

Time:  Middle Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus

Common name: Reindeer or Caribou

Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Northern North America and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Odocoileus virginianus

Common name: White-tailed deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)

Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae

Time:  Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: North, Central and northern South America

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Cervinae canadensis

Common name: Elk

Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: North America and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Cervinae canadensis

Common name: Elk

Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: North America and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Capreolus capreolus

Common name: Roe deer

Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae

Time:  Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Europe to Middle East

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus

Common name: Irish elk

Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene

Range: Europe and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus

Common name: Irish elk

Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene

Range: Europe and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Antilocaprinae – Subfamily: Antilocaprinae – Tribe: Antilocaprini

(Prong Horn)

 Early Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Antilocapra americana

Common name: Pronghorn

Classification: Subfamily: Antilocaprini

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Western North American

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Bovinae – Subtribe: Bovina

(Bison, Cattle and Buffalo)

 Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Bison bison

Common name: Bison

Specimen: Bull, Cow, and Calf

Classification: Subfamily: Bovinae – Subtribe: Bovina

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: North America

Diet: Hervivore (Ruminants)

Genus and species: Syncerus caffer

Common name: African Cape buffalo

Classification: Subfamily Bovinae

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Central to South Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Bubalus bubalis

Common name: Water buffalo

Classification: Subfamily Bovinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Southern Asia and Egypt

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus africanus

Common name: Ankole Cattle

Specimen: Bull

Classification: Family: Bovinae, Subfamily: Bovinae

Time: Holocene 

Range: Africa (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus

Common name: Spanish Fighting Bull (Toro Bravo)

Specimen: Bull

Classification: Family: Bovinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Spain, Portugal,France, and Latin America (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Hybrid Bos (primigenius) taurus/indicus

Common name: American Brahman

Specimen: Bull

Classification: Family: Bovinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Australia, Bravil, and United States (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Bos primigenius

Common name: Texas Longhorn Cattle

Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull

Classification: Family: Bovinae

Time: Holocene

Range: North America

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Bos primigenius

Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle

Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull

Classification: Family: Bovinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae

(Wildebeest, Hartebeest and Bonteboks)

 Late Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Eudorcas thomsonii

Common name: Thomson’s gazelle

Specimen: Cow and calf

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Antilopinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus

Common name: Blue Wildebeest

Specimen: Cow and calf

Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Southern Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus

Common name: Blue Wildebeest

Specimen: Bull

Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Southern Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Hippotragine

(Grazing Antelopes)

 Late Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Oryx dammah

Common name: Scimitar oryx

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Hippotraginae

Time: Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

(Goats and Sheep)

Late Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Oreamnos americanus

Common name: Mountain goat

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene

Range: North America

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Ovis aries

Common name: Ram or male sheep

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Global (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)

Genus and species: Caprini hircus

Common name: Domesticated Sheep

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)

Range: Europe (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)

Genus and species: Ovis aries

Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Global (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)

Genus and species: Ovis aries

Common name: Black Faced Sheep

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Europe (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)

Genus and species: Ovis aries

Common name: Valais Blacknose Sheep

Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Global (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)

Genus and species: Capra nubiana

Common name: Nubian Ibex

Classification: Family: Caprinae – Subfamily: Caprinae

Time: Holocene

Range: Middle East

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Suidae

(Pigs)

 Oligocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Phacochoerus africanus

Common name: Common Warthog

Classification: Family: Suidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Omnivore

Genus and species: Sus scrofa

Common name: Wild boar

Classification: Family: Suidae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America

Diet: Omnivore

Genus and species: Sus scrofa

Common name: Domesticated Pig

Classification: Family: Suidae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Global (Domesticated)

Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Suborder: Suina

(Peccaries)

Late Eocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Pecari  tajacu

Common name: Collared peccary

Classification: Family: Tayassuidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Central, South and Sourthern North America

Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Clade: Cetancodontamorpha – Family Entelodontidae

(Enteledonts)

 Late Eocene to Middle Miocene

 

Genus: Entelodon ‭”Perfect teeth‭”

Genus pronounced: En-tel-o-don.

Named By: Aymard‭ ‬-‭ ‬1846

Species: E.‭ ‬magnus‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬antiquus,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬aymardi,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬dirus,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬gobiensis,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬ronzonii

Known locations: Eurasia

Time period: Bartonian of the Eocene through to Rupelian of the Oligocene

Size: Around‭ ‬3‭ ‬meters long

Diet: Omnivore‭?

Genus: Daeodon ‭”‬Hostile tooth‭” or‭ “‬Destructive tooth‭”

Genus pronounced: Day-oh-don.

Named By: Edward Drinker Cope‭ ‬-‭ ‬1879

Species: D.‭ ‬shoshonensis‭ (‬type‭)‬

Known locations: North America

Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Burdigalian)

Size: 3.6‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬1.8‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder

Diet: Carnivore/Omnivore‭?

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Hippopotamidae

(Hippos)

 Middle Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Hippoptamus amphibius

Common name: Hippo

Classification: Family: Hippoptamidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Central, South Africa and Nile River

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Superfamily: Giraffoidea – Family: Giraffidae 

(Giraffe)

 Middle Miocene to Holocene

 

Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis

Common name: Giraffe

Classification: Giraffidae

Time: Miocene to Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore (Browser)

Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis

Common name: Giraffe

Classification: Giraffidae

Time: Miocene to Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore (Browser)

Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis

Common name: Giraffe

Classification: Giraffidae

Time: Miocene to Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore (Browser)

Genus and species: Okapia johnstoni

Common name: Okapi

Classification: Family: Giraffidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Central Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Camelidae – Tribe Camelini 

(Camels)

 Pliocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Camelus bactrianus

Common name: Bactrian camel

Classification: Family: Camelidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Central Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Camelus dromedarius

Common name: Dromedary

Classification: Camelidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Africa, Middle East and western Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Family: Camelidae – Tribe Lamini

(Lamas and Alpacas)

 ??? to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Lama glama

Common name: Lama

Classification: Camelidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Western South America

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Vicugna pacos

Common name: Alpaca

Classification: Camelidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Central western South America

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Artiodactyla – Clade: Cetancodontamorpha 

(???)

 Eocene

 

Genus: Andrewsarchus (Andrew’s ruler)

Genus pronounced: An-dru-sar-kus

Named By: Discovered by Kan Chuen Pao in‭ ‬1923,‭ ‬Henry Fairfield Osborn wrote the description in‭ ‬1924

Species: A.‭ ‬mongoliensis‭ (‬type‭)‬

Known locations: Mongolia

Time period: ‬Eocene (Lutetian to Priabonian) 

Size: Total size uncertain due to lack of remains.‭ ‬Skull is‭ ‬83‭ ‬centimetres long

Diet: Carnivore

Genus: Andrewsarchus (Andrew’s ruler)

Genus pronounced: An-dru-sar-kus

Named By: Discovered by Kan Chuen Pao in‭ ‬1923,‭ ‬Henry Fairfield Osborn wrote the description in‭ ‬1924

Species: A.‭ ‬mongoliensis‭ (‬type‭)‬

Known locations: Mongolia

Time period: ‬Eocene (Lutetian to Priabonian) 

Size: Total size uncertain due to lack of remains.‭ ‬Skull is‭ ‬83‭ ‬centimetres long

Diet: Carnivore

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