Prehistoric Models: Birds

Modern birds, now known as “non avaian dinosaurs” first appeared in the late Jurassic Period some 151 million years ago. Although the Cenozoic is known as “The Age of Mammals” there are only about 4,000  mammals species known and around 10,000 bird species.

AVES

“avian dinosaurs”

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Dinosauria – Clade: Saurischia – Clade: Theropoda – Clade: Avialae

(“bird wings”)

Late Jurassic to Holocene

 

Genus: Archaeopteryx “Ancient wing”
Genus pronounced: Ar-kay-op-teh-rix
Species: A. lithographica (type), A. albersdoerferi
Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1861
Classification: Family: Archaeopterygidae
Time: Jurassic (Tithonian)
Locality: Germany
Size: 50 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore
Genus: Archaeopteryx “Ancient wing”
Genus pronounced: Ar-kay-op-teh-rix
Species: A. lithographica (type), A. albersdoerferi
Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1861
Classification: Family: Archaeopterygidae
Time: Jurassic (Tithonian)
Locality: Germany
Size: 50 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore
Genus: Alexornis “Ancient wing”
Genus pronounced: Al-ex-or-nis
Species: A. antecedens (type)
Named by: Brodkorb – 1976
Classification: Family: Alexornithidae
Time: Late Cretaceous (Campanain)
Locality: Mexico, Baja California – Bocana Roja Formation
Size: 50 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Anserimorphae – Order: Gastornithiformes

(giant flightless fowl)

Paleocene to Pleistocene

 

Genus: Gastornis “Gaston’s bird”.
Genus pronounced: Gast-or-nis.
Species: G.‭ ‬parisiensis ‭(‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬giganteus,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬geiselensis,‭ G. laurenti, ‬G.‭ ‬sarasini,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬russeli,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬xichuanensis.
Named by: Hébert‭ ‬-‭ ‬1855.
Classification: Order: Anserimorphae – Family: Gastornithidae.
Time: Paleocene to Eocene
Locality: Belgium.‭ ‬China.‭ ‬England.‭ ‬France.‭ ‬Germany.‭ ‬USA.
Size: 2 meters tall.
Diet: Herbivore?
Genus: Diatryma now Gastornis “Gaston’s bird”.
Genus pronounced: Gast-or-nis.
Species: G.‭ ‬parisiensis ‭(‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬giganteus,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬geiselensis,‭ G. laurenti, ‬G.‭ ‬sarasini,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬russeli,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬xichuanensis.
Named by: Edward Drinker Cope 1874 (Diatryma). Hébert‭ ‬-‭ ‬1855 (Gastornis).
Classification: Order: Anserimorphae – Family: Gastornithidae.
Time: Paleocene to Eocene
Locality: Belgium.‭ ‬China.‭ ‬England.‭ ‬France.‭ ‬Germany.‭ ‬USA.
Size: 2 meters tall.
Diet: Herbivore?

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Austrodyptornithes – Order: Sphenisciformes

(penguins)

Late Paleocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri
Common name: Emperor penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri
Common name: Emperor penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Aptendytes patagonicus
Common name: King penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctica and surrounding islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus humboldti
Common name: Humboldt penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: West coast of South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus demersus
Common name: African penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South African coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus mendiculus
Common name: Galapagos penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Galapagos Islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis antarcticus
Common name: Chinstrap penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Antarctic oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis papua
Common name: Gentoo penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas between South America and Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pygoscelis adeliae
Common name: Adelie penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Seas around Antartica
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome
Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South Atlantic
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome
Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South Atlantic
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes schlegeli
Common name: Royal penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast Indian Ocean
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes sclateri
Common name: Erect-crested penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast New Zealand islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Megadyptes antipodes
Common name: Yellow-eyed penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast New Zealand and islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Daedalornithes – Order: Apodalornithes

(hummingbirds, swifts, and treeswifts)

Late Paleocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: TBD
Common name: Hummingbirds
Classification: Order: Apodiformes – Family: Trochilidae
Range: Global (tropical regions)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Hibiscus flower
Genus and species: Cinnyris jugularis
Common name: Female Olive-backed sunbird or garden sunbird
Classification: Order: Passeriformes – Family: Nectariniidae
Range: Philippines
Time: Holocene
Diet: Nectar

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Telluraves – Order: Strigiformes

(owls)

Late Paleocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Bubo virginianus
Common name: Great horned owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: North, Central and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Strix aluco
Common name: Tawny Owl, Brown owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Europe and western Siberia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore (beetles, earthworms, rodents, small rabbits, and birds)
Genus and species: Bubo scandiacus
Common name: Snowy owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe, and Russia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Anserimorphae – Order: Cariamiformes

(large flightless birds)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus: Kelenken”After a diety”
Genus pronounced:
Kell-en-ken
Species:
K.‭ ‬guillerm (‬type‭)‬
Named by:
Bertelli et al.‭ ‬-‭ ‬2007
Classification:
Order: Cariamiformes – Family: Phorusrhacidae – Subfamily: Phorusrhacinae
Time:
Middle Miocene (Colloncuran)
Locality: Argentina
Size:
2 to 3 meters tall
Diet:
Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Picodynastornithes – Order: Piciformes

(toucans)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus  and species: Ramphastos sulfuratus
Common name: Keel-billed toucan
Classification: Order: Piciformes – Family: Ramphastidae
Range: Central American and northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Cavitaves – Clade: Eucavitaves – Order: Trogoniformes

(trogons)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Pharomachrus mocinno
Common name: Resplendent quetzal
Classification: Order: Trogoniformes – Family: Trognidae
Range: Central American
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Pangalliformes – Order: Galliformes

(chickens, turkeys, quails, and other landfowl)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Originally from Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, and species: Meleagris gallopavo
Common name: Turkey
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianida – Subfamily: Phasianinae – Tribe: Meleagridini
Range: North America
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pavo cristatus
Common name: Common peafowl and blue peafowl
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Indian subcontinent
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore (seed, fruits, insects, worms, frogs, lizards, and small mammals)

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Anserimorphae – Order: Anseriformes

(ducks, geese, and swans)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Branta canadensis
Common name: Canada Goose
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Cygnus atratus
Common name: Black swan
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: Western regions of Australia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Almost exclusively herbivore aquatic and marshland plants
Genus and species: Anas platyrhynchos
Common name: Mallard
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: Northern hemisphere
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Accipitrimorphae – Order: Accipitriformes

(hawks)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Common name: Bald Eagle
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Buteo galapagoensis
Common name: Galapagos hawk
Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae
Range: Galapagos islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Accipitrimorphae – Order: Cathartiformes

(new world vultures)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Gymnogyps californianus 
Common name: California condor
Classification: Order: Cathartiformes – Family: Cathartidae
Range: California, Arizona, Utah and northern Mexico Baja
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Catharter aura
Common name: Turkey vulture, buzzard, john crow, or carrion crow
Classification: Order: Accipitiforme s- Family: Cathartidae
Range: North and South America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Psittacopasserae – Order: Psittaciformes

(parrots)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Amazonia viridigenalis
Common name: Red-crowned amazon
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Western central Mexico
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Ara ararauna
Common name: Blue-and-yellow macaw
Classification:Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Northern South America 
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus and species: Ara chloropterus
Common name: Red-and-green macaw
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Northern South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Melopsittacus undulatus
Common name: Budgerigar
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Australia
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cacatua galerita
Common name: Yellow-crested cockatoo
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae
Range: Australia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Calyptorhynchus banksii
Common name: Red-tailed black cockatoo
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae
Range: Australia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Otidimorphae – Order: Cuculiformes

(cuckoos)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Geococcyx californianus
Common name: Greater Roadrunner
Classification: Order: Cuculiformes – Family: Cuculidae – Subfamily: Neomorphinae
Range: Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Neognathae – Clade: Neoaves – Clade: Gruimorphae – Order: Charadriiformes

(shore birds)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Larus smithsonianus
Common name: Herring Gull
Classification: Order: Charadriiformes – Family: Laridae
Range: North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Mirandornithes – Order: Phenicopteriformes

(flamingos)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Aequornithes – Order: Suliformes

(“phalacrocoraciformes”)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Sula nebouxii
Common name: Blue-footed booby
Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae
Range: Galapagos Islands, west coast Mexico and northwest coast of South America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sula suka
Common name: Red-footed booby
Classification:
Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae
Range:
Central Indian, Pacific and south-central Atlantic Oceans
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Fregata minor
Common name: Great frigatebird
Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Fregatidae
Range: Most tropical oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Order: Pelecaniformes

(pelecans and ibis)

Oligocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Common name: American white pelican
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Pelecanus
Range: North America and Central America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus albus
Common name: American white ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudicimus ruber
Common name: Scarlet ibis
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae
Range: Northern and one western South American coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ardea herodias
Common name: Great Blue Heron
Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Ardeidae
Range: North America
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Columbimorphae – Order: Columbiformes

(pigeons and doves)

Early Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus
Common name: Dodo
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae
Range: Mauritius
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?
Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus
Common name: Dodo
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae
Range: Mauritius
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?
Genus and species: Goura victoria
Common name: Victoria crown pigeon
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae
Range: New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore (figs, seed, and invertebrates)

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Palaeognathae – Clade: Notopalaeognathae – Clade: Novaeratitae – Order: Casuariiformes

(recent large flightless birds)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Casuarius casuarius
Common name: Southern Cassowary
Classification: Order: Casuariiformes – Family: Casuariidae
Range: Northeastern Australia, Aru Islands, Indonesia, and Southern New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: 90% Herbivore (mainly fruit), and opportunistic omnivores (fungi, invertebrates, eggs, carrion, fish, small birds, snakes, lizards, and frogs)
Genus and species: Dromaius novaehollandiae
Common name: Emu
Classification: Order: Casuariiformes – Family: Casuariidae
Range: Australia
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Palaeognathae – Order: Struthioniformes

(recent large flightless birds)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Struthio camelus
Common name: Common ostrich
Classification: Order: Struthioiformes – Family: Struthionidae
Range: Africa
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Palaeognathae – Order: Dinornithiformes

(moas “largest flightless birds”)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Name: Dinornis “Terrible bird”
Prnounced: Die-nor-nis
Named By: Richard Owen‭ ‬-‭ ‬1843
Classification: Infraclass: Paleognathae – Order: ‬Dinornithiformes – Family: ‬Dinornithidae
Species: D.‭ ‬novaezealandiae,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬robustus.
Diet: Herbivore
Size: ‬3.6‭ ‬meters high
Known locations: New Zealand
Time period: Late Pleistocene to Holocene

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Novaeratitae – Order: Apterygiformes

(kiwi)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Apteryx australis
Common name: Kiwi
Classification: Order: Apterygiformes – Family: Apterygidae
Range: New Zealand
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

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