Prehistoric Models: Birds

Modern birds, now known as “non avaian dinosaurs” first appeared in the late Jurassic Period some 151 million years ago. Although the Cenozoic is known as “The Age of Mammals” there are only about 4,000  mammals species known and around 10,000 bird species.

AVES

“avian dinosaurs”

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Dinosauria – Clade: Saurischia – Clade: Theropoda – Clade: Avialae

(“bird wings”)

Late Jurassic to Holocene

 

Genus: Archaeopteryx “Ancient wing”

Genus pronounced: Ar-kay-op-teh-rix

Species: A. lithographica (type), A. albersdoerferi

Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1861

Classification: Family: Archaeopterygidae

Time: Jurassic (Tithonian)

Locality: Germany

Size: 50 centimeters long

Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore 

Genus: Archaeopteryx “Ancient wing”

Genus pronounced: Ar-kay-op-teh-rix

Species: A. lithographica (type), A. albersdoerferi

Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1861

Classification: Family: Archaeopterygidae

Time: Jurassic (Tithonian)

Locality: Germany

Size: 50 centimeters long

Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore 

Genus: Alexornis “Ancient wing”

Genus pronounced: Al-ex-or-nis

Species: A. antecedens (type)

Named by: Brodkorb – 1976

Classification: Family: Alexornithidae

Time: Late Cretaceous (Campanain)

Locality: Mexico, Baja California – Bocana Roja Formation

Size: 50 centimeters long

Diet: Carnivore/Insectivore 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Anserimorphae – Order: Gastornithiformes

(giant flightless fowl)

Paleocene to Pleistocene

 

Genus: Gastornis “Gaston’s bird”.

Genus pronounced: Al-ex-or-nis.

Species: G.‭ ‬parisiensis ‭(‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬giganteus,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬geiselensis,‭ G. laurenti, ‬G.‭ ‬sarasini,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬russeli,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬xichuanensis.

Named by: Hébert‭ ‬-‭ ‬1855.

Classification: Order: Anserimorphae – Family: Gastornithidae.

Time: Paleocene to Eocene

Locality: Belgium.‭ ‬China.‭ ‬England.‭ ‬France.‭ ‬Germany.‭ ‬USA.

Size: 2 meters tall.

Diet: Herbivore?

Genus: Diatryma now Gastornis “Gaston’s bird”.

Genus pronounced: Al-ex-or-nis.

Species: G.‭ ‬parisiensis ‭(‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬giganteus,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬geiselensis,‭ G. laurenti, ‬G.‭ ‬sarasini,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬russeli,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬xichuanensis.

Named by: Edward Drinker Cope 1874 (Diatryma). Hébert‭ ‬-‭ ‬1855 (Gastornis).

Classification: Order: Anserimorphae – Family: Gastornithidae.

Time: Paleocene to Eocene

Locality: Belgium.‭ ‬China.‭ ‬England.‭ ‬France.‭ ‬Germany.‭ ‬USA.

Size: 2 meters tall.

Diet: Herbivore?

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Austrodyptornithes – Order: Sphenisciformes

(penguins)

Late Paleocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri

Common name: Emperor penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Antarctica

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Aptendytes forsteri

Common name: Emperor penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Antarctica

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Aptendytes patagonicus

Common name: King penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Antarctica and surrounding islands

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Spheniscus humboldti

Common name: Humboldt penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: West coast of South America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Spheniscus demersus

Common name: African penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: South African coast

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Spheniscus mendiculus

Common name: Galapagos penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Galapagos Islands

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Pygoscelis antarcticus

Common name: Chinstrap penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Antartic oceans

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Pygoscelis papua

Common name: Gentoo penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Seas between South America and Antartica

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Pygoscelis adeliae

Common name: Adelie penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Seas around Antartica

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome

Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: South Atlantic

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Eudyptes chrysocome

Common name: Southern rockhopper penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: South Atlantic

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Eudyptes schlegeli

Common name: Royal penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Southeast Indian Ocean

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Eudyptes sclateri

Common name: Erect-crested penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Southeast New Zealand islands

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Megadyptes antipodes

Common name: Yellow-eyed penguin

Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae

Range: Southeast New Zealand and islands

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Daedalornithes – Order: Apodalornithes

(hummingbirds, swifts, and treeswifts)

Late Paleocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: TBD

Common name: Hummingbirds

Classification: Order: Apodiformes – Family: Trochilidae

Range: Global (tropical regions)

Time: Holocene

Diet: Hibiscus flower

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Telluraves – Order: Strigiformes

(owls)

Late Paleocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Bubo virginianus

Common name: Great horned owl

Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae

Range: North, Central and South America

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Bubo scandiacus

Common name: Snowy owl

Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae

Range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe, and Russia

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Anserimorphae – Order: Cariamiformes

(large flightless birds)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus: Kelenken “After a diety”.

Genus pronounced: Kell-en-ken.

Species: K.‭ ‬guillerm (‬type‭)‬.

Named by: Bertelli et al.‭ ‬-‭ ‬2007.

Classification: Order: Cariamiformes – Family: Phorusrhacidae – Subfamily: Phorusrhacinae.

Time: Middle Miocene (Colloncuran).

Locality: Argentina

Size: 2 to 3 meters tall.

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Picodynastornithes – Order: Piciformes

(toucans)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus  and species: Ramphastos sulfuratus

Common name: Keel-billed toucan

Classification: Order: Piciformes – Family: Ramphastidae

Range: Central American and northern South America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Cavitaves – Clade: Eucavitaves – Order: Trogoniformes

(trogons)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus  and species: Pharomachrus mocinno

Common name: Resplendent quetzal

Classification: Order: Trogoniformes – Family: Trognidae

Range: Central American

Time: Holocene

Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Pangalliformes – Order: Galliformes

(chickens, turkeys, quails, and other landfowl)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus

Common name: Chicken

Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae

Range: Global (Demesticated)

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Anserimorphae – Order: Anseriformes

(ducks, geese, and swans)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Branta canadensis

Common name: Canada Goose

Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae

Range: North America

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Anas platyrhynchos

Common name: Mallard

Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae

Range: Northern hemisphere

Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Accipitrimorphae – Order: Accipitriformes

(hawks)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Common name: Bald Eagle

Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae

Range: North America

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Buteo galapagoensis

Common name: Galapogos hawk

Classification: Order: Accipitriformes- Family: Accipitridae

Range: Galapogos islands

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Accipitrimorphae – Order: Cathartiformes

(new world vultures)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Gymnogyps californianus 

Common name: California condor

Classification: Order: Cathartiformes – Family: Cathartidae

Range: California, Arizona, Utah and northern Mexico Baja

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Psittacopasserae – Order: Psittaciformes

(parrots)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Amazonia viridigenalis

Common name: Red-crowned amazon

Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae

Range: Western central Mexico

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Ara ararauna

Common name: Blue-and-yellow macaw

Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae

Range: Northern South America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Ara chloropterus

Common name: Red-and-green macaw

Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae

Range: Northern South America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Melopsittacus undulatus

Common name: Budgerigar

Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae

Range: Australia

Time: Pliocene to Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Cacatua galerita

Common name: Yellow-crested cockatoo

Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae

Range: Australia

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Calyptorhynchus banksii

Common name: Red-tailed black cockatoo

Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae

Range: Australia

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Otidimorphae – Order: Cuculiformes

(cuckoos)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Geococcyx californianus

Common name: Greater Roadrunner

Classification: Order: Cuculiformes – Family: Cuculidae – Subfamily: Neomorphinae

Range: Northern Mecxico and Southwestern United States

Time: Holocene

Diet: Insectivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Neognathae – Clade: Neoaves – Clade: Gruimorphae – Order: Charadriiformes

(shore birds)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Larus smithsonianus

Common name: Herring Gull

Classification: Order: Charadriiformes – Family: Laridae

Range: North America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Mirandornithes – Order: Phenicopteriformes

(flamingos)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber

Common name: Flamingos

Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae

Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia

Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene

Diet: Ominivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Aequornithes – Order: Suliformes

(“phalacrocoraciformes”)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Sula nebouxii

Common name: Blue-footed booby

Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae

Range: Galapagos Islansa, west coast Mexico and northwest coast of South Amrica

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Sula suka

Common name: Red-footed booby

Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Sulidae

Range: Central Indian, Pacific and south central Atlantic Oceans

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Fregata minor

Common name: Great frigatebird

Classification: Order: Suliformes – Family: Fregatidae

Range: most tropical oceans

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Order: Pelecaniformes

(pelecans and ibis)

Oligocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Pelecanus erythrorhynchos

Common name: American white pelican

Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Pelecanus

Range: North America and Central America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Eudicimus albus

Common name: American white ibis

Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae

Range: Southern North America, northern South America, and Central America’s coast

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Eudicimus ruber

Common name: Scarlet ibis

Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Threskiornithidae

Range: northern and one western South American coast

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Ardea herodias

Common name: Great Blue Heron

Classification: Order: Pelecaniformes – Family: Ardeidae

Range: North America

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Columbimorphae – Order: Columbiformes

(pigeons and doves)

Early Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus

Common name: Dodo

Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae

Range: Mauritius

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?

Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus

Common name: Dodo

Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae

Range: Mauritius

Time: Holocene

Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Palaeognathae – Clade: Notopalaeognathae – Clade: Novaeratitae – Order: Casuariiformes

(recent large flightless birds)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Dromaius novaehollandiae

Common name: Emu

Classification: Order: Casuariiformes – Family: Casuariidae

Range: Australia

Time: Miocene to Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Infraclass: Palaeognathae – Order: Struthioniformes

(recent large flightless birds)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Struthio camelus

Common name: Common ostrich

Classification: Order: Struthioiformes – Family: Struthionidae

Range: Africa

Time: Miocene to Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Aves – Clade: Novaeratitae – Order: Apterygiformes

(kiwi)

Miocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Apteryx australis

Common name: Kiwi

Classification: Order: Apterygiformes – Family: Apterygidae

Range: New Zealand

Time: Miocene to Holocene

Diet: Herbivore

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