Prehistoric Models: Carnivora

(meat eaters)

Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).

The Order Carnivora include placenal mammals that specialize in eating meat. Carnivora is divided into two suborders: Caniformia, including dogs,bears, seals, raccoons, and weasels. The other suborder: Feliformia, cats, saber toothed cats, meerkats, mongooses, and hyaenas. To see my fossil Carnivores click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Feliformia – Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Pantherinae

(Big cats)

Late Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Panthera leo
Common name: African Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera tigris
Common name: Tiger
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera tigris
Common name: White Bengal or Siberian Tiger
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera onca
Common name: Jaguar
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and South America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera pardus
Common name: Leopard
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera uncia
Common name: Snow Leopard
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Feliformia – Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae

(Cats)

Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Acinonyx jubatus
Common name: Cheetah
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Puma concolor
Common name: Cougar, Puma, Mountain Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Leopardus pardalis
Common name: Ocelot
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central and South Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Caracal caracal
Common name: Caracal
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lynx rufus
Common name: Bobcat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lynx canadensis
Common name: Canadain lynx
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Canada and Alaska
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Feliformia – Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini

(Saber-toothed cats)

Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Feliformia – Family: Nimravidae – Subfamily: Hoplophoninae

(“False” Saber-toothed cats)

Middle Eocene to Late Miocene

 

 

Genus and species: Eusmilus bidentatus 
Common name: False Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Nimravidae – Subfamily: Hoplophoninae
Time: Late Eocene to Early Oligocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Feliformia – Family: Hyaenidae

(Hyena)

Early Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Crocuta crocuta
Common name: Spotted hyena
Classification: Family: Hyaenidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Crocuta crocuta
Common name: Spotted hyena
Classification: Family: Hyaenidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Feliformia – Superfamily: Herpestoidea – Family: Herpestidae

(Mongoose)

Early Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Suricata suricata
Common name: Meerkats
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Herpestes sanguineus
Common name: Common slender mongoose. black-tipped mongoose, or the black-tailed mongoose
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Sub Saharan Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Cynictis penicillata
Common name: Yellow mongoose
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Family: Canidae

(Dogs and Foxes)

Late Eocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus irremotus
Common name: Timber Wolf or Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus arctos
Common name: Arctic Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North Polar Region
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus 
Common name: Grey Wolf or Gray Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Canus latrans
Common name: Coyote
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canus lupus dingo
Common name: Australian Dingo
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lycaon pictus
Common name: African Wild Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes zerda
Common name: Feenec fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Africa Western Sahara to Sinai Peninsula
Diet: Carnivore (insects, small mammals, and birds)
Genus and species: Vulpes vulpes
Common name: Red Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern Hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes lagopus
Common name: Arctic Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Artic
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Chrysocyon brachyurus
Common name: Maned Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Infraorder: Arctoidea – Family: Ursidae

(Bears)

Late Eocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Ursus maritimus
Common name: Polar Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Artic Circle
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ursus arctos
Common name: Grizzly Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northwest North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ursus arctos
Common name: Grizzly Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northwest North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ursus americanus
Common name: American Black Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ursus spelaeus
Common name: Cave Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Middle to Late Pleistocene
Range: Asia to Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ursus spelaeus
Common name: Cave Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Middle to Late Pleistocene
Range: Asia to Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Melursus ursinus
Common name: Sloth Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae – Subfamily: Ursinae
Time: Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Indian subcontinent
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Helarctos malayanus
Common name: Sun Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae – Subfamily: Ursinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southeast Asia
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Common name: Giant Panada
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: China
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Infraorder: Arctoidea – Clade: Pinnipedimorpha – Clade: Pinnipediformes – Clade: Pinnipedia

(Seals and Walruses)

Late Oligocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Phoca vitulina
Common name: Harbor (common) Seal
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern seas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Zalophus californianus
Common name: Californian Sea Lion
Classification: Family: Otariidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North American west coast
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Arctocephalus pusillus
Common name: Fur Seal
Classification: Family: Otariidae  Subfamily: Arctocephalinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eumetopias jubatus
Common name: Female Steller sea lion
Classification: Family: Odobenidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Pacific Northwest
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Odobenus rosmarus
Common name: Male Pacific walrus
Classification: Family: Odobenidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Pole surrounding oceans
Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Superfamily: Musteloidea – Family: Mustelidae

(Weasels)

Oligocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Gulo gulo
Common name: Wolverine
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Meles meles
Common name: European badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Recent
Range: Europe
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Taxidea taxus
Common name: North American badger
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Sates, Northern Mexico, South Central Canada
Diet: Carnivore (mice squirrels, and groundhogs)
Genus: Lutra lutra
Common name: Eurasian otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Eurasian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Lutra canadensis
Common name: North American river otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Carnivore (fish, salamander, frogs, freshwater clams, mussels, turtles, crayfich, perch, and catfish)
Genus: Enhydra lutris
Common name: Sea otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean
Diet: Carnivore (fsea urchins, various mollusks, crustaceans, and fish)
Genus and species: Mustela furo
Common name: Domesticated Ferret
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Superfamily: Musteloidea – Family: Procyonidae

(Racoons, Coatis, and Ringails)

Middle Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Procyon lotor
Common name: Raccoon
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Nasua nasua
Common name: South American Coati or Ring-tailed Coati
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: South America (Colimbia to Argentina)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Nasua narica
Common name: Coatimundi and Spanish: antoon, gato, pizote, and tejon
Classification: Family: Procyonidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central America to Arizona, new mexico, Mexico, introduced to Florida
Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Superfamily: Musteloidea – Family: Ailuridae

(Red Pandas)

Oligocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus and species: Aliurus fulgens
Common name: Red Panada
Classification: Family: Ailuridae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: China
Diet: Omnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Carnivora – Suborder: Caniformia – Superfamily: Musteloidea – Family: Mephitidae

(Skunks)

Middle Miocene to Holocene

 

 

Genus: Mephitis mephitis
Common name: Striped Skunk
Classification: Family: Mephitidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North America
Diet: Omnivore

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