Prehistoric Models: Marginocephalia

Marginocephalia meaning “edge head” consist of the horned dinosaurs known as Ceratopsians and the “ram-head” dinosaurs formally known as Pachycephalosaurs. Marginocephala first appear in the fossil record in the Jurassic period, but are best known for their late Cretaceous forms found in Asia and North America.

The two main groups are the Ceratopsians (meaning horn face) and the Pachycephalosaurs (meaning thick headed lizards) that are for some reason more commonly called “ram-heads” 

BASAL CERATOPSIANS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Suborder: Ceratopsia

Genus: Koreaceratops “Korea horn face

Genus pronounced: Koe-ree-ah-seh-rah-tops

Species: K. hwaseongensis (type)

Named by: Yuong-Nam Lee,‭ ‬Michael J.‭ ‬Ryan‭ & ‬Yoshitsugo Kobayashi‭ ‬-‭ ‬2011

Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia

Time: Cretaceous (Albian)

Locality: South Korea – Tando Basin

Size: Uncertain meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Serendipaceratops “serendipitous horned face

Genus pronounced: Se-ren-dip-ah-seh-rah-tops

Species: S. arthurcclarkei (type)

Named by: T. Rich and P. Vickers-Ric – 2003

Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia

Time: Cretaceous (Aptian)

Locality: Australia – Wonthaggi Formation

Size: 2.3 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Psittacosaurus “parrot lizard

Genus pronounced: Sit-tah-coe-sore-us

Species: P. mongoliensis (type), P. amitabha, P. gobiensis, P. lujiatunensis, P. major, P. mazongshanensis, P. meileyingensis, P. neimongoliensis, P. ordosensis, P. sibiricus, P. sinensis. P. xinjiangensis.

Named by: Henry Fairfield Osborn – 1923

Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Psittacosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)

Locality: China, Mongolia, and Russia. Possibly also Thailand

Size: 2 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Leptoceratops “small horned face

Genus pronounced: Lep-toe-ser-ah-tops

Species: L. gracilis (type)

Named by: Barnum Brown – 1914

Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Leptoceratopsidae

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Locality: Canada: Alberta, USA: Wyoming

Size: 2 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Protoceratops first horned face

Genus pronounced: Pro-toe-seh-rah-tops

Species: P. andrewsi (type), P. hellenikorhinus

Named by: Walter W. Granger and William King Gregory – 1923

Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Protoceratopsidae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: China and Mongolia

Size: 1.8 to 2 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Zuniceratops Zuni-horned face

Genus pronounced: Zoo-nee-ceh-ra-tops.

Species: Z. christopheri.

Named by: Douglas G. Wolfe and James I. Kirkland – 1998.

Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Clade: Ceratopsomorpha

Time: Cretaceous (Turonian)

Locality: U.S.A., New Mexico, Moreno Hill Formation.

Size: 3.5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

CENTROSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Genus: Diabloceratops Devil horned face

Genus pronounced: Dee-ab-low-seh-rah-tops

Species: D. eatoni (type)

Named by: Jim Kirkland – 2010

Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: Utah

Size: Unknown meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Achelousaurus Achelous’s lizard

Genus pronounced: Ah-kell-oo-sore-us

Species: A. horneri (type)

Named by: Scott Sampson – 1995

Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: Montana – Two Medicine Formation

Size: Skull up to 1.6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Monoclonius single sprout

Genus pronounced: Mon-oh-clo-nee-us

Species: M. crassus (type), M. lowei?

Named by: Edward Drinker Cope – 1876

Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Late Cretaceous

Locality: USA: Montana. Possibly Canada

Size: Unknown meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Nasutoceratops large nosed horned face

Genus pronounced: Na-su-to-seh-ra-tops

Species: N. titusi (‬type‭)‬

Named by: D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬K.‭ ‬Lund,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Farke‭ & ‬K.‭ ‬E.‭ ‬Clayton‭ ‬-‭ ‬2013

Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: Utah – Kaiparowits Formation

Size: 4.8 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Xenoceratops “alien horned face

Genus pronounced: Zee-noe-seh-rah-tops

Species: X. foremostensis (‬type‭)‬

Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans‭ & ‬K.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Shepherd‭ ‬-‭ ‬2012

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Canada: Alberta – Foremost Formation

Size: 6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Styracosaurus spiked lizard

Genus pronounced: Sty-rak-oh-sore-us

Species: Styracosaurus parksi,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬sphenocerus,‭ ‘‬S.‭ ‬borealis‭’

Named by: Lawrence Lambe – 1913

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Canada: Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation.

Size: 5.5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Pachyrhinosaurus thick nosed lizard

Genus pronounced: Pack-ee-rye-no-sore-us

Species: P.‭ ‬canadensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬lakustai,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬perotorum

Named by: Charles Mortram Sternberg – 1950

Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation,‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Alaska‭ ‬-‭ ‬Prince Creek Formation

Size: 8 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Einiosaurus buffalo lizard

Genus pronounced: Ay-nee-o-sore-us

Species: E. procurvicornis (‬type‭)‬

Named by: Scott Sampson – 1995

Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: Montana – Two Medicine Formation

Size: 4.5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Sinoceratops  Chinese Ceratopsian

Genus pronounced: Sye-noh-seh-rah-tops.

Species: S. zhuchengensis (type).

Named by: Xu Xing, Wang KeBai, Zhao XiJin & Li DunJing – 2010.

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: China, Shandong Province.

Size: Skull is estimated to have measured as much as 1.8 meters long.

Diet: Herbivore

 

CHASMOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Genus: Medusaceratops Medusa horned face

Genus pronounced: Me-dew-sa-seh-ra-tops

Species: M. lokii (‬type‭)‬

Named by: Ryan, Russel, and Hartman – 2010

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: Montana – Judith River Formation

Size: Unknown meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Kosmoceratops ornament horned face

Genus pronounced: Kos-mo-seh-rah-tops

Species: K. richardsoni (‬type‭)‬

Named by: S.‭ ‬D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Farke,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Roberts,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Forster,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Smith‭ & ‬A.‭ ‬L.‭ ‬Titus‭ ‬-‭ ‬2010

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: Utah – Kaiparowits Formation

Size: 4.5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Mercuriceratops Mercury horned face

Genus pronounced: Mer-cu-re-seh-rah-tops

Species: M. gemini (‬type‭)‬

Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae?

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Judith River Formation

Size: 4.5 to 4.8 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Chasmosaurus cleft lizard

Genus pronounced: Kazz-moe-sore-us

Species: C. belli (type), C. russelli.

Named by: Lawrence Lambe – 1914

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation

Size: 4.3 to 4.8 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Utahceratops Utah horned face

Genus pronounced: U-tah-seh-rah-tops

Species: U. gettyi (‬type‭)‬

Named by: S.‭ ‬D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Farke,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Roberts,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Forster,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Smith‭ & ‬A.L.‭ ‬Titus‭ ‬-‭ ‬2010

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA:‭ Utah – Kiaparowits Formation

Size: 4.5 to 5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Vagaceratops Wandering horned face

Genus pronounced: Va-ga-seh-rah-tops

Species: V. irvinensis (‬type‭)‬

Named by: Scott D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬Mark A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬Andrew A.‭ ‬Farke,‭ ‬Eric M.‭ ‬Roberts,‭ ‬Catherine A.‭ ‬Forster,‭ ‬Joshua A.‭ ‬Smith,‭ & ‬Alan L.‭ ‬Titus‭ ‬-‭ ‬2010

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation.‭ ‬

Size: 6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Pentaceratops five horned face

Genus pronounced: Pen-tah-seh-rah-tops

Species: P. sternbergii (‬type‭)‬

Named by: Henry Fairfield Osborn – 1923

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: USA: New Mexico and Colorado

Size: 6 to 7 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Regaliceratops royal horned face

Genus pronounced: Re-gal-e-seh-rah-tops

Species: R. peterhewsi (‬type‭)‬

Named by: Caleb M.‭ ‬Brown‭ & ‬Donald M.‭ ‬Henderson‭ ‬-‭ ‬2015

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tibe: Triceratopsini

Time: Cretaceous (Middle Maastrichtian)

Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭‬‭ ‬St Mary River Formation

Size: 5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Torosaurus perforated lizard

Genus pronounced: Toh-ro-sore-us

Species: T. latus (‬type‭), T. utahensis?

Named by: Othniel CHarles Marsh – 1891

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichian)

Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Scollard Formation,‭ ‬Saskatchewan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Frenchman Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Colorado‭ ‬-‭ ‬Laramie Formation,‭ ‬North Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬South Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Javelina Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lance Formation.

Size: 7.5 to 7.6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Triceratops “three horned face

Genus pronounced: Tri-seh-rah-tops

Species: T. prorsus

Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini

Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan

Size: 8 to 9 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Triceratops “three horned face

Genus pronounced: Tri-seh-rah-tops

Species: T. horridus (‬type‭)

Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini

Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan

Size: 8 to 9 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Baby Triceratops “three horned face

Genus pronounced: Tri-seh-rah-tops

Species: T. horridus (‬type‭) 

Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014

Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini

Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan

Size: 8 to 9 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

PACHYCEPHALOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Sunfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe: Pachycephalosaurini

Genus: Dracorex “dragon king”

Genus pronounced: Dray-coe-reks

Species: D. hogwartsia (‬type‭)

Named by: R.‭ ‬T.‭ ‬Bakker‭ ‬-‭ ‬R.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Sullivan,‭ ‬V.‭ ‬Porter,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬Larson‭ & ‬S.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Saulsbury‭ ‬-‭ ‬2006

Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA: ‬South Dakota – Hell Creek Formation

Size: 3 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Stygimoloch “Styx demon”

Genus pronounced: Stij-e-mol-ok

Species: S. spinifer (‬type‭)

Named by: P. M. Galton and H. D. Sues – 1983

Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA – Ferris Formation, Hell Creek Formation

Size: 3 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Pachycephalosaurus “thick headed lizard”

Genus pronounced: Pak-ee-sef-ah-low-sore-us

Species: P. wyomingensis (‬type‭)

Named by: Barnum Brown‭ & ‬Erich Maren Schlaikjer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1943

Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA

Size: 4.5  meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

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