Prehistoric Models: Marginocephalia

Marginocephalia meaning “edge head” consist of the horned dinosaurs known as Ceratopsians and the “ram-head” dinosaurs formally known as Pachycephalosaurs. Marginocephala first appear in the fossil record in the Jurassic period, but are best known for their late Cretaceous forms found in Asia and North America.

The two main groups are the Ceratopsians (meaning horn face) and the Pachycephalosaurs (meaning thick headed lizards) that are for some reason more commonly called “ram-heads” 

BASAL CERATOPSIANS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Suborder: Ceratopsia

Genus: Koreaceratops “Korea horn face
Genus pronounced: Koe-ree-ah-seh-rah-tops
Species: K. hwaseongensis (type)
Named by: Yuong-Nam Lee,‭ ‬Michael J.‭ ‬Ryan‭ & ‬Yoshitsugo Kobayashi‭ ‬-‭ ‬2011
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: South Korea – Tando Basin
Size: Uncertain meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Serendipaceratops “serendipitous horned face
Genus pronounced: Se-ren-dip-ah-seh-rah-tops
Species: S. arthurcclarkei (type)
Named by: T. Rich and P. Vickers-Ric – 2003
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian)
Locality: Australia – Wonthaggi Formation
Size: 2.3 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Psittacosaurus “parrot lizard
Genus pronounced: Sit-tah-coe-sore-us
Species: P. mongoliensis (type), P. amitabha, P. gobiensis, P. lujiatunensis, P. major, P. mazongshanensis, P. meileyingensis, P. neimongoliensis, P. ordosensis, P. sibiricus, P. sinensis. P. xinjiangensis.
Named by: Henry Fairfield Osborn – 1923
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Psittacosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: China, Mongolia, and Russia. Possibly also Thailand
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Leptoceratops “small horned face
Genus pronounced: Lep-toe-ser-ah-tops
Species: L. gracilis (type)
Named by: Barnum Brown – 1914
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Leptoceratopsidae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta, USA: Wyoming
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Protoceratops first horned face
Genus pronounced: Pro-toe-seh-rah-tops
Species: P. andrewsi (type), P. hellenikorhinus
Named by: Walter W. Granger and William King Gregory – 1923
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Protoceratopsidae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: China and Mongolia
Size: 1.8 to 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Zuniceratops Zuni-horned face
Genus pronounced: Zoo-nee-ceh-ra-tops.
Species: Z. christopheri.
Named by: Douglas G. Wolfe and James I. Kirkland – 1998.
Classification: Suborder: Ceratopsia – Clade: Ceratopsomorpha
Time: Cretaceous (Turonian)
Locality: U.S.A., New Mexico, Moreno Hill Formation.
Size: 3.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

CENTROSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae

Genus: Diabloceratops Devil horned face
Genus pronounced: Dee-ab-low-seh-rah-tops
Species: D. eatoni (type)
Named by: Jim Kirkland – 2010
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: Utah
Size: Unknown meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Achelousaurus Achelous’s lizard
Genus pronounced: Ah-kell-oo-sore-us
Species: A. horneri (type)
Named by: Scott Sampson – 1995
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: Montana – Two Medicine Formation
Size: Skull up to 1.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Monoclonius single sprout
Genus pronounced: Mon-oh-clo-nee-us
Species: M. crassus (type), M. lowei?
Named by: Edward Drinker Cope – 1876
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Late Cretaceous
Locality: USA: Montana. Possibly Canada
Size: Unknown meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Nasutoceratops large nosed horned face
Genus pronounced: Na-su-to-seh-ra-tops
Species: N. titusi (‬type‭)‬
Named by: D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬K.‭ ‬Lund,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Farke‭ & ‬K.‭ ‬E.‭ ‬Clayton‭ ‬-‭ ‬2013
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: Utah – Kaiparowits Formation
Size: 4.8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Xenoceratops “alien horned face
Genus pronounced: Zee-noe-seh-rah-tops
Species: X. foremostensis (‬type‭)‬
Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans‭ & ‬K.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Shepherd‭ ‬-‭ ‬2012
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta – Foremost Formation
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Styracosaurus spiked lizard
Genus pronounced: Sty-rak-oh-sore-us
Species: Styracosaurus parksi,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬sphenocerus,‭ ‘‬S.‭ ‬borealis‭’
Named by: Lawrence Lambe – 1913
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation.
Size: 5.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Pachyrhinosaurus thick nosed lizard
Genus pronounced: Pack-ee-rye-no-sore-us
Species: P.‭ ‬canadensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬lakustai,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬perotorum
Named by: Charles Mortram Sternberg – 1950
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bearpaw Formation,‭ ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Alaska‭ ‬-‭ ‬Prince Creek Formation
Size: 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Einiosaurus buffalo lizard
Genus pronounced: Ay-nee-o-sore-us
Species: E. procurvicornis (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Scott Sampson – 1995
Classification: Subfamily: Centrosaurinae – Tribe: Pachyrhinoaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: Montana – Two Medicine Formation
Size: 4.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Sinoceratops  Chinese Ceratopsian
Genus pronounced: Sye-noh-seh-rah-tops.
Species: S. zhuchengensis (type).
Named by: Xu Xing, Wang KeBai, Zhao XiJin & Li DunJing – 2010.
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Centrosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: China, Shandong Province.
Size: Skull is estimated to have measured as much as 1.8 meters long.
Diet: Herbivore
 

CHASMOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Suborder: Ceratopsia – Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae

Genus: Medusaceratops Medusa horned face
Genus pronounced: Me-dew-sa-seh-ra-tops
Species: M. lokii (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Ryan, Russel, and Hartman – 2010
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: Montana – Judith River Formation
Size: Unknown meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Kosmoceratops ornament horned face
Genus pronounced: Kos-mo-seh-rah-tops
Species: K. richardsoni (‬type‭)‬
Named by: S.‭ ‬D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Farke,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Roberts,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Forster,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Smith‭ & ‬A.‭ ‬L.‭ ‬Titus‭ ‬-‭ ‬2010
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: Utah – Kaiparowits Formation
Size: 4.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Mercuriceratops Mercury horned face
Genus pronounced: Mer-cu-re-seh-rah-tops
Species: M. gemini (‬type‭)‬
Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae?
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Judith River Formation
Size: 4.5 to 4.8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Chasmosaurus cleft lizard
Genus pronounced: Kazz-moe-sore-us
Species: C. belli (type), C. russelli.
Named by: Lawrence Lambe – 1914
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation
Size: 4.3 to 4.8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Utahceratops Utah horned face
Genus pronounced: U-tah-seh-rah-tops
Species: U. gettyi (‬type‭)‬
Named by: S.‭ ‬D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Farke,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Roberts,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Forster,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Smith‭ & ‬A.L.‭ ‬Titus‭ ‬-‭ ‬2010
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA:‭ Utah – Kiaparowits Formation
Size: 4.5 to 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Vagaceratops Wandering horned face
Genus pronounced: Va-ga-seh-rah-tops
Species: V. irvinensis (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Scott D.‭ ‬Sampson,‭ ‬Mark A.‭ ‬Loewen,‭ ‬Andrew A.‭ ‬Farke,‭ ‬Eric M.‭ ‬Roberts,‭ ‬Catherine A.‭ ‬Forster,‭ ‬Joshua A.‭ ‬Smith,‭ & ‬Alan L.‭ ‬Titus‭ ‬-‭ ‬2010
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park Formation.‭ ‬
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Pentaceratops five horned face
Genus pronounced: Pen-tah-seh-rah-top
Species: P. sternbergii (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Henry Fairfield Osborn – 1923
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: USA: New Mexico and Colorado
Size: 6 to 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Regaliceratops royal horned face
Genus pronounced: Re-gal-e-seh-rah-tops
Species: R. peterhewsi (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Caleb M.‭ ‬Brown‭ & ‬Donald M.‭ ‬Henderson‭ ‬-‭ ‬2015
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tibe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Middle Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭‬‭ ‬St Mary River Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Torosaurus perforated lizard
Genus pronounced: Toh-ro-sore-us
Species: T. latus (‬type‭), T. utahensis?
Named by: Othniel CHarles Marsh – 1891
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichian)
Locality: Canada:‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Scollard Formation,‭ ‬Saskatchewan‭ ‬-‭ ‬Frenchman Formation.‭ ‬USA:‭ ‬Colorado‭ ‬-‭ ‬Laramie Formation,‭ ‬North Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬South Dakota‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hell Creek Formation,‭ ‬Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Javelina Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lance Formation.
Size: 7.5 to 7.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Triceratops “three horned face
Genus pronounced: Tri-seh-rah-tops
Species: T. prorsus
Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Triceratops “three horned face
Genus pronounced: Tri-seh-rah-tops
Species: T. horridus (‬type‭)
Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Baby Triceratops “three horned face
Genus pronounced: Tri-seh-rah-tops
Species: T. horridus (‬type‭)
Named by: M.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ryan,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Evans,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Currie‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Lowman‭ ‬-‭ ‬2014
Classification: Family: Ceratopsidae – Subfamily: Chasmosaurinae – Tribe: Triceratopsini
Time: Cretaceous (Late Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming.‭ ‬Canada:‭ ‬Alberta,‭ ‬Saskatchewan
Size: 8 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

PACHYCEPHALOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Sunfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe: Pachycephalosaurini

Genus: Dracorex “dragon king”
Genus pronounced: Dray-coe-reks
Species: D. hogwartsia (‬type‭)
Named by: R.‭ ‬T.‭ ‬Bakker‭ ‬-‭ ‬R.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Sullivan,‭ ‬V.‭ ‬Porter,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬Larson‭ & ‬S.‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Saulsbury‭ ‬-‭ ‬2006
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA: ‬South Dakota – Hell Creek Formation
Size: 3 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Stygimoloch “Styx demon”
Genus pronounced: Stij-e-mol-ok
Species: S. spinifer (‬type‭)
Named by: P. M. Galton and H. D. Sues – 1983
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA – Ferris Formation, Hell Creek Formation
Size: 3 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Pachycephalosaurus “thick headed lizard”
Genus pronounced: Pak-ee-sef-ah-low-sore-us
Species: P. wyomingensis (‬type‭)
Named by: Barnum Brown‭ & ‬Erich Maren Schlaikjer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1943
Classification: Family: Pachycephalosauridae – Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae – Tribe:‭ ‬Pachycephalosaurini
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA
Size: 4.5  meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

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