Prehistoric Models: Perissodactyla

(odd toed hoofed animals)

Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).

Perissodactyla meaning “odd fingers”, are more commonly called Odd-toed ungulates; are a taxonomic order of mammals that bear their wieght on one of five toes, usually the third (or middle) toe. The modern representatives of this group are horse, tapirs and rhinoceras, but they have a greater diversity in the fossil record than today. To see my fossil Perissodactylas click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Brontotheriidae

(Brontotheres)

Early to Late Eocene

Genus: Megacerops “‬Large horned face”

Genus pronpounced: Meg-ah-seh-rops

Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870

Species: M.‭ ‬coloradensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬curtus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hatcheri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬kuwagatarhinus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬platyceras,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬riggsi.

Size: 2.5‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder

Locations: Canada,‭ ‬Seskatchewan.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming

Time period: Eocene (Priabonian) to Oligocene (Rupelian)

Diet: Herbivore.

Genus: Megacerops “‬Large horned face”

Genus pronpounced: Meg-ah-seh-rops

Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870

Species: M.‭ ‬coloradensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬curtus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hatcheri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬kuwagatarhinus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬platyceras,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬riggsi.

Size: 2.5‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder

Locations: Canada,‭ ‬Seskatchewan.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming

Time period: Eocene (Priabonian) to Oligocene (Rupelian)

Diet: Herbivore.

Genus: Megacerops “‬Large horned face”

Genus pronpounced: Meg-ah-seh-rops

Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870

Species: M.‭ ‬coloradensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬curtus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hatcheri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬kuwagatarhinus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬platyceras,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬riggsi.

Size: 2.5‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder

Locations: Canada,‭ ‬Seskatchewan.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming

Time period: Eocene (Priabonian) to Oligocene (Rupelian)

Diet: Herbivore.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family Hyracodontidae – Subfamily: Indricotheriinae

(Giant Hornless Rhinoceras)

Early Eocene to Early Miocene

Genus: Paraceratherium ‭(‘Near horn beast‭”

Genus pronounced: Pa-ra-cee-ra-fee-ree-um

Named By: Sir Clive Forster Cooper‭ ‬-‭ ‬1911

Species: P.‭ ‬bugtiense‭ (‬type‭)‬, P. huangheense,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬orgosense,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬prohorovi,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬transouralicum,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬zhajremensis

Diet: Herbivore

Size: ‬4.8‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder

Known locations: China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Kazakhsatn and Pakistan

Time period: Oligocene (Priabonian to Chattian)

Size: ‬4.8‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Rhinocerotidae

(Rhinoceros)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Ceratotherium simum

Common name: White Rhinoceras

Classification: Family: Rhinocerotidae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Central and Souhern Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Diceros bicornis

Common name: Black or Hook-lipped Rhinoceros

Classification: Rhinocerotidae

Time: Pliocene to Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

Common name: Sumatran Rhinoceras

Classification: Rhinocerotidae

Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Southest Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Coelodonta antiquitatis

Common name: Woolly Rhinoceros

Classification: Rhinocerotidae

Time: Late Pliocene to Late Pleistocene

Range: Europe and Asia

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Tapiridae

(Tapirs)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Acrocodia indica

Common name: Adult Malayan Tapir

Classifiaction: Tapiridae

Time: ??? to Holocene

Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus and species: Acrocodia indica

Common name: Young Malayan Tapir

Classifiaction: Tapiridae

Time: ??? to Holocene

Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Suborder: Hippomorpha – Family: Paleotheriidae

(Paleotheres)

Early Eocene to Early Oligocene

 

Genus: Palaeotherium ‭”‬Ancient beast‭”

Genus pronounced: Pay-lee-o-fee-ree-um

Named By: Georges Cuvier‭ ‬-‭ ‬1804.

Species: P.‭ ‬curtum,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬duvalii,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬magnum,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬medium,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬minus,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬muehlbergi,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬parvulum

Known locations: Europe,‭‬ France,‭ ‬Germany,‭ ‬Spain,‭ ‬Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Time period: Eocene (Lutetian to Priabonian) and Oligocene (Rupelian )

Size: 120‭ ‬centimeters long,‭ ‬75‭ ‬to‭ ‬140‭ ‬centimeters high at the shoulder

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Equidae

(Horses)

 Eocene to Holocene

Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”

Genus pronounced: An-chee-fee-ree-um

Named By: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1844.

Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.

Species: A.‭ ‬ezquerrae‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬alberdiae,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬aurelianense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬australis,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬castellanum,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬clarencei,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬corcolense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬cursor,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬gobiense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬hippoides,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬matritense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬navasotae,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬parequinum,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬procerum.

Known locations: Eurasia and North America

Time period: Miocene

Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder.

Diet: Herbivore.

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus przewalskii

Common name: Przewalski’s horse

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: ??? to Holocene

Range: Mongolia

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Clydesdale (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Europe and United States of America

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus

Common name: Donkey

Classification: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Global (Domesticated)

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Percheron Stallion (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Europe (France) and United States of America

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Gray Andalusian Stallion (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Europe (Spain) 

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Black Shire Stallion (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: United Kingdom, Austalia, Canada, and United States

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Haflinger Mare (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Europe (Austria and Italy)

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Appaloosa Horse Mare and Foal (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: United States

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus

Common name: Friesian Mare and Foal (Domesticated)

Classifiacation: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene

Range: Europe (Netherlands)

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris quagga

Common name: Plains Zebra

Classification: Family: Equidae

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris grevyi

Common name: Grévy’s Zebra

Classification: Family: Equidae

Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: East Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris zebra

Common name: Mountain Zebra

Classification: Family: Equidae

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Range: Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus quagga quagga

Common name: Quagga

Classification: Family: Equidae

Time: Holocene (Extinct 1883)

Range: South Africa

Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Chalicotheriidae

(Chalicotheres)

Middle Eocene to Early Pleistocene

Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”

Genus pronounced: Cha-lih-co-fee-ree-um.

Named By: Johann Jakob Kaup‭ ‬-‭ ‬1833

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Mammalia,‭ ‬Perissodactyla,‭ ‬Chalicotheriidae.

Species: C.‭ ‬goldfussi‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬brevirostris,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬giganteum,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬pilgrimi,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬rusingense,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬salinum,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬wetzleri,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬wuduensis.

Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.

Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)

Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.

Diet: Herbivore.

Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”

Genus pronounced: Cha-lih-co-fee-ree-um.

Named By: Johann Jakob Kaup‭ ‬-‭ ‬1833

Classification: Chordata,‭ ‬Mammalia,‭ ‬Perissodactyla,‭ ‬Chalicotheriidae.

Species: C.‭ ‬goldfussi‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬brevirostris,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬giganteum,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬pilgrimi,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬rusingense,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬salinum,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬wetzleri,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬wuduensis.

Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.

Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)

Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.

Diet: Herbivore.

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