Prehistoric Models: Perissodactyla

(odd toed hoofed animals)

Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).

Perissodactyla meaning “odd fingers”, are more commonly called Odd-toed ungulates; are a taxonomic order of mammals that bear their wieght on one of five toes, usually the third (or middle) toe. The modern representatives of this group are horse, tapirs and rhinoceras, but they have a greater diversity in the fossil record than today. To see my fossil Perissodactylas click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Brontotheriidae

(Brontotheres)

Early to Late Eocene

Genus: Megacerops “‬Large horned face”
Genus pronpounced: Meg-ah-seh-rops
Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870
Species: M.‭ ‬coloradensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬curtus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hatcheri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬kuwagatarhinus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬platyceras,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬riggsi.
Size: 2.5‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Locations: Canada,‭ ‬Seskatchewan.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming
Time period: Eocene (Priabonian) to Oligocene (Rupelian)
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Megacerops “‬Large horned face”
Genus pronpounced: Meg-ah-seh-rops
Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870
Species: M.‭ ‬coloradensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬curtus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hatcheri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬kuwagatarhinus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬platyceras,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬riggsi.
Size: 2.5‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Locations: Canada,‭ ‬Seskatchewan.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming
Time period: Eocene (Priabonian) to Oligocene (Rupelian)
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Megacerops “‬Large horned face”
Genus pronpounced: Meg-ah-seh-rops
Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870
Species: M.‭ ‬coloradensis‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬curtus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hatcheri,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬kuwagatarhinus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬platyceras,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬riggsi.
Size: 2.5‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Locations: Canada,‭ ‬Seskatchewan.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬South Dakota,‭ ‬Wyoming
Time period: Eocene (Priabonian) to Oligocene (Rupelian)
Diet: Herbivore.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family Hyracodontidae – Subfamily: Indricotheriinae

(Giant Hornless Rhinoceras)

Early Eocene to Early Miocene

Genus: Paraceratherium ‭’Near horn beast‭”
Genus pronounced: Pa-ra-cee-ra-fee-ree-um
Named By: Sir Clive Forster Cooper‭ ‬-‭ ‬1911
Species: P.‭ ‬bugtiense‭ (‬type‭)‬, P. huangheense,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬orgosense,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬prohorovi,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬transouralicum,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬zhajremensis
Diet: Herbivore
Size: ‬4.8‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder
Known locations: China,‭ ‬India,‭ ‬Kazakhstan and Pakistan
Time period: Oligocene (Rupelian to Chattian)
Size: ‬4.8‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Rhinocerotidae

(Rhinoceros)

Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Ceratotherium simum
Common name: White Rhinoceras
Classification: Family: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Diceros bicornis
Common name: Black or Hook-lipped Rhinoceros
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range:
Africa
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus and species: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
Common name: Sumatran Rhinoceras
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southeast Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Coelodonta antiquitatis
Common name: Woolly Rhinoceros
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Late Pleistocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet:
Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Tapiridae

(Tapirs)

Early Eocene to Holocene

 

Genus and species: Acrocodia indica
Common name: Adult Malayan Tapir
Classifiaction: Tapiridae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Acrocodia indica
Common name: Young Malayan Tapir
Classifiaction: Tapiridae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Suborder: Hippomorpha – Family: Paleotheriidae

(Paleotheres)

Early Eocene to Early Oligocene

 

Genus: Palaeotherium ‭”‬Ancient beast‭”
Genus pronounced: Pay-lee-o-fee-ree-um
Named By: Georges Cuvier‭ ‬-‭ ‬1804.
Species: P.‭ ‬curtum,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬duvalii,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬magnum,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬medium,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬minus,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬muehlbergi,‭ ‬P.‭ ‬parvulum
Known locations: Europe,‭‬ France,‭ ‬Germany,‭ ‬Spain,‭ ‬Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
Time period: Eocene (Lutetian to Priabonian) and Oligocene (Rupelian )
Size: 120‭ ‬centimeters long,‭ ‬75‭ ‬to‭ ‬140‭ ‬centimeters high at the shoulder
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Equidae

(Horses)

 Eocene to Holocene

Genus: Anchitherium ‭”Near beast‭”
Genus pronounced: An-chee-fee-ree-um
Named By: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1844.
Classification: Subfamily: Anchitheriinae.
Species: A.‭ ‬ezquerrae‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬alberdiae,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬aurelianense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬australis,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬castellanum,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬clarencei,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬corcolense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬cursor,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬gobiense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬hippoides,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬matritense,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬navasotae,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬parequinum,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬procerum.
Known locations: Eurasia and North America
Time period: Miocene
Size: 60‭ ‬centimetres high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus przewalskii
Common name: Przewalski’s horse
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Mongolia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Clydesdale (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Percheron Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (France) and United States of America
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Gray Andalusian Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Spain)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Black Shire Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Haflinger Mare (Domesticated)
Classifiacation: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Austria and Italy)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Appaloosa Horse Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Friesian Mare and Foal (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Netherlands)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris quagga
Common name: Plains Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris grevyi
Common name: Grévy’s Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: East Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris zebra
Common name: Mountain Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus quagga quagga
Common name: Quagga
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene (Extinct 1883)
Range: South Africa
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Perissodactyla – Family: Chalicotheriidae

(Chalicotheres)

Middle Eocene to Early Pleistocene

Genus: Chalicotherium ‭”Pebble beast‭”
Genus pronounced: Cha-lih-co-fee-ree-um.
Named By: Johann Jakob Kaup‭ ‬-‭ ‬1833
Classification: Phylum: Chordata – ‬Class: Mammalia -‭ ‬Order: Perissodactyla -‭ ‬Family: Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Chalicotheriinae.
Species: C.‭ ‬goldfussi‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬brevirostris,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬giganteum,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬pilgrimi,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬rusingense,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬salinum,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬wetzleri,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬wuduensis.
Locations: Africa,‭ ‬Asia,‭ ‬Europe.
Time period: Miocene (Late Burdigalian to Tortonian)
Size: 2.6‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.
Genus: Moropus ‭”Slow/sloth foot‭”
Genus pronounced: More-oh-pus.
Named By: Othniel Charles Marsh‭ ‬-‭ ‬1877
Classification: Phylum: Chordata, – Class: ‬Mammalia -‭ Order: ‬Perissodactyla – Family:‭ ‬Chalicotheriidae – Subfamily: Schizotheriinae.
Species: M.‭ ‬distans‭(‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬elatus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬hollandi,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬matthewi,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬merriami,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬oregonensis,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬senex.
Locations: Across the United States.
Time period: Miocene (Aquitanian to Langhian)
Size: 2.4‭ ‬meters high at the shoulder.
Diet: Herbivore.

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