Prehistoric Models: Proboscidea

(elephants)

Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).

 

The term Proboscidea has Greek origins in reference to the proboscis, being an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. The earliest and smallest members of Proboscideans first appeared in the fossil record during the Paleocene Epoch some 60 million years ago in Africa. To see my fossil Proboscids click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Proboscidea

(Mastodons, Mammoths and Elephants)

 (Paleocene to Holocene)

 

Genus: Amebelodon “Shovel tooth”

Genus pronounced: Am-e-bel-oh-don

Named by: Erwin Hinckly Barbour – 1927

Species: A. fricki (type), A. Floridanus

Classification: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Amebelodontitdae (“shovel-tuskers”)

Time: Miocene Epoch (Tortonian to Messinian) 9 – 6 mya

Locations: North American Great Plains and Gulf Coast

Size: 2.5 (8.20 ft) Height and  3m (9.85ft) Length

Diet: Herbivore
 

Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”

Genus pronounced: Gom-foe-fee-ree-um

Named by: Burmeister – 1837

Species: G.‭ ‬anguirvalis,‭ ‬G.angustidens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬annectens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬brewsterensis,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬calvertense,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬connexus,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬nebrascensis,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬obscurum,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬productum,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬rugosidens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬simplicidens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬willistoni,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬wimani.

Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae

Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)

Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America

Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore
 

Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”

Genus pronounced: Dy-noe-fee-ree-um

Named by: Johann Jakob Kaup – 1829

Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae

Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs

Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia

Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore
 

Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)

Genus pronounced: Mam-mut

Named by: Johann Friedrich Blumenbach – 1799

Species: M.‭ ‬americanum,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬cosoensis,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬furlongi,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬matthewi,‭ ‬M. pacificus, M.‭ ‬pentilicus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬raki,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬spenceri.

Classification: Family: Mammutidae

Time: Early Oligocene through to the end of the Pleistocene/early Holocene

Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America

Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore (browser)

Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)

Genus pronounced: Mam-mu-fus prim-o-gen-e-us

Named by: Johann Friedrich Blumenbach‭ ‬-‭ ‬1799‭ ‬as Elephas primigenius.‭ ‬Later became known as Mammuthus primigenius after the creation of the Mammuthus genus by Joshua Brookes in‭ ‬1828.

Species: M. primigenius

Classification: Family: Elephantidae

Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬

Locations: North America to Eurasia

Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore (grazer)

Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth Calf)

Genus pronounced: Mam-mu-fus prim-o-gen-e-us

Named by: Johann Friedrich Blumenbach‭ ‬-‭ ‬1799‭ ‬as Elephas primigenius.‭ ‬Later became known as Mammuthus primigenius after the creation of the Mammuthus genus by Joshua Brookes in‭ ‬1828.

Species: M. primigenius

Classification: Family: Elephantidae

Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬

Locations: North America to Eurasia

Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore (grazer)

Genus: Elephas

Common name: Bull/Male Asian Elephant

Species: E. maximus 

Classification: Family: Elephantidae

Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya

Range: South Asia

Size: Males 2.75m (9.0 ft) and Females 2.40m (7.9 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore (grazer)

Genus: Elephas maximus

Common name: Cow/Female and Calf Asian Elephant

Species: E. maximus

Classification: Family: Elephantidae

Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya

Range: South Asia

Size: Males 2.75m (9.0 ft) and Females 2.40m (7.9 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore (grazer)

Genus: Loxodonta africana

Common name: African Bush Elephant

Classification: Family: Elephantidae

Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya

Range: Africa

Size: Males 3.96m (13.0 ft) and Females 2m (6.6 ft) hieght

Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
 

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