Prehistoric Models: Proboscidea


Mammals are a class animals defined as warm-blooded vertebrates, distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young (with only two modern exceptions).


The term Proboscidea has Greek origins in reference to the proboscis, being an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. The earliest and smallest members of Proboscideans first appeared in the fossil record during the Paleocene Epoch some 60 million years ago in Africa. To see my fossil Proboscids click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Superclass: Tetrapoda – Class: Mammalia – Order: Proboscidea

(Mastodons, Mammoths and Elephants)

 (Paleocene to Holocene)


Genus: Amebelodon “Shovel tooth”
Genus pronounced: Am-e-bel-oh-don
Named by: Erwin Hinckly Barbour – 1927
Species: A. fricki (type), A. Floridanus
Classification: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Amebelodontitdae (“shovel-tuskers”)
Time: Miocene Epoch (Tortonian to Messinian) 9 – 6 mya
Locations: North American Great Plains and Gulf Coast
Size: 2.5 (8.20 ft) Height and  3m (9.85ft) Length
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Gomphotherium “Welded beast”
Genus pronounced: Gom-foe-fee-ree-um
Named by: Burmeister – 1837
Species: G.‭ ‬anguirvalis,‭ ‬G.angustidens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬annectens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬brewsterensis,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬calvertense,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬connexus,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬nebrascensis,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬obscurum,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬osborni,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬productum,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬rugosidens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬simplicidens,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬willistoni,‭ ‬G.‭ ‬wimani.
Classifications: Superfamily: Gomphotheriidae, Family: Gomphotheriidae
Time: Miocene (Serravallian) to Pliocene (Zanclean)
Location: Africa, Eurasia and North America
Size: 2.51m (8.3 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Deinotherium “terrible beast”
Genus pronounced: Dy-noe-fee-ree-um
Named by: Johann Jakob Kaup – 1829
Classification: Suborder: Deinotheroidea, Family: Deinotheriidae, Subfamily: Deinotheriinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene Epochs
Locations: Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Mammut “breast tooth” (Mastodon)
Genus pronounced: Mam-mut
Named by: Johann Friedrich Blumenbach – 1799
Species: M.‭ ‬americanum,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬cosoensis,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬furlongi,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬matthewi,‭ ‬M. pacificus, M.‭ ‬pentilicus,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬raki,‭ ‬M.‭ ‬spenceri.
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene through to the end of the Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Genus pronounced: Mam-mu-fus prim-o-gen-e-us
Named by: Johann Friedrich Blumenbach‭ ‬-‭ ‬1799‭ ‬as Elephas primigenius.‭ ‬Later became known as Mammuthus primigenius after the creation of the Mammuthus genus by Joshua Brookes in‭ ‬1828.
Species: M. primigenius
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Elephas
Common name: Asian Elephant
Species: E. maximus 
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya
Range: South Asia
Size: Males 2.75m (9.0 ft) and Females 2.40m (7.9 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Loxodonta africana
Common name: African Bush Elephant
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya
Range: Africa
Size: Males 3.96m (13.0 ft) and Females 2m (6.6 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)

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