Prehistoric Models: Ray-Finned Fish

Osteichthyes meaning “bony fish” are a diverse taxonomic group fish that have skeletons composed of bone instead of cartilage. There are two groups Actinopterygii more commonly known as “ray-finned fish”; including tuna, salmon, goldfish, etc… The other group are Sarcopterygii more commonly known as “lobe-finned fish”; including lungfish and coelacanths.

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Pachycormiformes – Family: Pachycormidae

(pachycormidae)

Early Jurassic (Toarcian) to Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Name: Leedsichthys “Leed’s fish”

Species: L. problematicus (type)

Pronounced: Leeds-ick-th-iss

Named By: Arthur Smith Woodward – 1889

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Pachycormiformes – Family: Pachycormidae

Diet: Filter feeder

Size: 16 meters long

Known locations: England, France, Germany, Chile

Time period: Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian)

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Subclass: Chondrostei – Order: Acipenseriformes

(sturgeons and paddlefish)

Early Jurassic to Holocene

Genus and species: Acipenser fulvescens

Common name: Lake Sturgeon

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Acipenseriformes – Family: Acipenseridae

Range: Great Lakes, North America

Time: Pleistocene to Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Infraclass: Teleostei – Order: Ichthyodectiformes

(stem-teleost ray-finned fish)

Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous

Name: Xiphactinus‭ “Sword Ray‭”

Pronounced: Zif-ack-tih-nus

Species: X.‭ ‬audax,‭ ‬X.‭ ‬vetus

Named By: Joseph Leidy‭ ‬-‭ ‬1870

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: ‬Ichthyodectiformes – Family: Ichthyodectidae – Subfamily: ‬Ichthyodectinae

Type: Carnivore/Piscivore

Size: 4‭ ‬to‭ ‬6‭ ‬meters long

Known locations: USA; ‬Alabama,‭ ‬Georgia,‭ ‬Kansas.‭ ‬Europe; ‬Australia.‭ ‬Canada

Time period: Cretaceous (Coniacian to Maastrichtian)

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Clade: Percomorpha – Order: Tetraodontiformes

(plectognathi)

Late Cretaceous to Holocene

Genus and species: Dichotomyctere fluviatilis

Common name: Green pufferfish

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Tetraodontiformes – Suborder: Tetraodontoidei – Family: Tetraodontidae

Range: South and Southeast Asia

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Clade: Percomorpha – Order: Perciformes

(percomorpha or acanthopteri)

Late Cretaceous to Holocene

Genus and species: Perca flavescens

Common name: Yellow Perch

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Percidae

Range: North America

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Amphiprion ocellaris

Common name: Ocellaris clownfish

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Pomacentridae

Range: Australia, Japan, and Southeast Asia

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Centropyge loricula

Common name: Flame angelfish

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Pomacanhidae

Range: Pacific Ocean ropical waters

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – (unranked): Acanthomorpha – Superorder: Acanthopterygii – Clade: Percomorpha – Order: Syngnathiformes

(sea horses)

Late Cretaceous to Holocene

Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus

Common name: Seahorse

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae

Range: Global

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus

Common name: Seahorse

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae

Range: Global

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus

Common name: Seahorse

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae

Range: Global

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Clade: Percomorpha – Order: Scombriformes – Family: Scombridae – Subfamily: Scombrinae – Tribe: Thunnini

(tuna)

Early Eocene to Holocene

Genus, species, and subspecies: Thunnus thunnus thynnus

Common name: Atlantic bluefun tuna or northern bluefin tuna

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Scombriformes – Family: Scombridae

Range: Western and eastern Atlantic ocean, Mediterranean, and formerly Black Sea

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Superorder: Acanthopterygii – Order: Scorpaenifomes

(scleroparei)

Early Eocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Pterois volitans

Common name: Lionfish, firefish, turkeyfish, butterfly-cod, or tastyfish,

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Scorpaeniformes – Family: Scorpaenidae – Tribe: Pteroini

Range: Indo-Pacific

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Domain: Eukaryota – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Clade: Percomorpha – Order: Acanthuriformes – Family: Acanthuridae

(surgeonfish)

Eocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Paracanthurus hepatus

Common name: Blue tang, Regal tang, Palette surgeonfish

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Acanthuriformes – Family: Acanthuridae – Subfamily: Acanthurinae

Range: Indo Pacific: Great Barrier Reef of Australia, Indoesia, Philippines, East Africa, Samoa, Sri Lanka, and New Caledonia

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Clade: Teleostomi – Superclass: Osteichthyes – Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Anguilliformes – Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae

(moray eels)

Late Miocene to Holocene

Genus and species: Enchelycore schismatrhynchus

Common name: White-margined moral, brown moral eel, or funnel-nostril moray

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes – Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae

Range: Coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Gymnomuraena zebra

Common name: Zebra moral

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae – Subfamily: Muraeninae

Range: Western coast of Americas, Indo-Pacific, eastern coast of Africa, Red Sea, Galapagos, and Hawaii

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

Genus and species: Anarchias seychellensis

Common name: Seychelles moray or the marbled reef-eel

Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae

Range: Coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans

Time: Holocene

Diet: Carnivore

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