Prehistoric Models: Thyreophora

Thyreophoras meaning “shield bearers” include the the armored dinosaurs that range of the early or lower Jurassic to end Cretaceous.  Stegosaurids were more sucessful in the middle and late Jurassic and are extinct by middle Cretaceous. Although the Ankylosaurids first apear in the Jurassic they are the dominant representatives of the group in the Cretaceous period. The are two main types: the “clubless” Nodosaurs and their more popular club-tailed Ankylosaur cousins. To see my Thyreophoran fossil and cast replicas click here.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora

Genus: Scutellosaurus “little shielded lizard”
Genus pronounced: Scu-tel-loe-sore-us
Species: S. lawleri (type)
Named by: Edwin Harris Cilbert – 1981
Classification: Suborder: Thyreophora
Time: Jurassic (Sinemurian to Pliensbachian)
Locality: USA: Arizona – Kayenta Formation
Size: 1.2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Scelidosaurus “limb lizard”
Genus pronounced: Skel-is-doe-sore-us
Species: S. harrisonii (type)
Named by: Richard Owen – 1859
Classification: Suborder: Thyreophora – Superfamily: Thyreophoroidea – Family: Scelidosautidae
Time: Jurassic (Sinemurian to Pliensbachian)
Locality: England, Dorset
Size: 4 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Stegosauria

Genus: Gigantspinosaurus “giant-spined lizard”
Genus pronounced: Ji-gant-spy-noe-sore-us
Species: G. sichuanensis (type)
Named by: Ouyang – 1992
Classification: Clade: Stegosauria
Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian)
Locality: China,‭ ‬Sichuan Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Shaximiao Formation
Size: 4.2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Dacentrurus “Very sharp tail”
Genus pronounced: Da-sen-tru-rus
Species: D. armatus (type)
Named by: Frederic Augustus Lucas – 1902
Classification: Clade: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Dacentrurinae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)
Locality: England‭, France, Portugal and Spain
Size: 7 to 8 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Miragaia “Named after the location of its discovery”
Genus pronounced: Mee-rah-guy-sh
Species: M. longicollum (type)
Named by: Octávio Mateus,‭ ‬Susannah C.R.‭ ‬Maidment‭ & ‬Nicolai A.‭ ‬Christiansen‭ ‬-‭ ‬2009
Classification: Clade: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Dacentrurinae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)
Locality: Portugal – Sobral Formation
Size: 5.5 to 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Kentrosaurus “spike lizard”
Genus pronounced: Ken-tro-sore-us
Species: K. aethiopicus (type)
Named by: Edwin Hennig – 1915
Classification: Clade: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)
Locality: Africa: Tanzania – Tendaguru Formation
Size: 4.5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Lexovisaurus “Lexovii lizaed”
Genus pronounced: Leks-o-ve-sore-us
Species: L. durobrivensis (type)
Named by: Robert Hoffstetter – 1957
Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae
Time: Mid to Late Jurassic
Locality: England‭ ‬-‭ ‬Oxford Clay Formation.‭ ‬Possibly France and Germany
Size: 5 to 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Chialingosaurus “Chialing lizard after the Chialing River”
Genus pronounced: Chee-a-ling-o-sore-us
Species: C.‭ kuani (type)
Named by: C. C. Young – 1959
Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae
Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian)
Locality: China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Sichuan Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dashanpu/Upper Shaximiao Formation.
Size: 4 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Tuojiangosaurus Tuo river lizard
Genus pronounced: Too-oh-jang-oh-sore-us
Species: T.‭ ‬multispinus‭ (‬type‭)
Named by: Dong et al.‭ ‬-‭ ‬1977
Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae
Time: Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)
Locality: China,‭ ‬Sichuan Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Upper Shaximiao Formation
Size: 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Stegosaurus “Roof lizaed”
Genus pronounced: Steg-oh-sore-us
Species: S.‭ ‬armatus,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬stenops,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬ungulatus.
Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1877
Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)
Locality: USA: Colorado, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, mostly associated with the Morrison Formation. Portugal – Alcobaça Formation.
Size: 7 to 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Wuerhosaurus “Wuerho lizaed”
Genus pronounced: Where-oh-sore-us
Species: W.‭ ‬homheni‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬W.‭ ‬ordosensis
Named by: Dong Zhiming – 1973
Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae
Time: Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)
Locality: China,: ‬Xinjiang‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tugulu Group,‭ ‬Inner Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ejinhoro Formation
Size: 5 to 7 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Ankylosauria

Genus: Minmi ‬After Minmi crossing,‭ ‬Australia‭”
Genus pronounced: Min-me
Species: M.‭ paravertebra‭ (‬type‭)
Named by: Ralph Molnar – 1980
Classification: Clade: Ankylosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian)
Locality: Australia, Minmi crossing
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Stegouros roofed tail‭‭”
Genus pronounced: Steg-oo-ros
Species: S.‭ ‬elengassen‭ (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Sergio Soto-Acuña,‭ ‬Jonatan Kaluza,‭ ‬Marcelo Leppe,‭ ‬Joao Botelho,‭ ‬José Palma-Liberona,‭ ‬Carolina Gutstein,‭ ‬Roy Fernández,‭ ‬Hector Ortiz,‭ ‬Verónica Milla,‭ ‬Bárbara Aravena,‭ ‬Leslie Manríquez,‭ ‬Jhonatan Alarcón-Muñoz,‭ ‬Juan Pino,‭ ‬Christine Trevisan,‭ ‬Héctor Mansilla,‭ ‬Luis Hinojosa,‭ ‬Vicente Muñoz-Walther‭ & ‬David Rubilar-Rogers‭ ‬-‭ ‬2021.
Classification: Clade: Parankylosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian )
Locality: Chile‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dorotea Formation
Size: 2 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Ankylosauria – Family: Nodosauridae

Genus: Hylaeosaurus “forest lizard”
Genus pronounced: Hy-lay-e-o-sore-us
Species: H.‭ armatus‭ (‬type‭)‬
Named by: Gideon Mantell – 1833
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Early Cretaceous (Valanginian)
Locality: England
Size: 3 to 7.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Polacanthus “many spikes”
Genus pronounced: Po-la-can-thuss
Species: P.‭ foxii‭ (‬type‭), P. rudgwickensis
Named by: Richard Owen – 1865
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: United Kingdom, Isle of Wight, Sussex
Size: 4 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Gastonia “Gaston’s thing”
Genus pronounced: Gas-toe-nee-ah
Species: G. burgeri (‬type‭)‬, G. lorriemcwhinneyae
Named by: James Kirkland – 1998
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Albian)
Locality: USA: Utah – Cedar Mountian Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Sauropelta “lizard shield”
Genus pronounced: Sore-oh-pel-tah
Species: S. edwardsorum‭ (‬type‭)‬
Named by: John Ostrom – 1970
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: USA: Wyoming and Montana – Cloverly Formation
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Borealopelta ‭”northern shield‬‭”
Genus pronounced: Bor-reel-o-pel-ta
Species: B.‭ markmitchelli (‬type‭)
Named by: Brown et al., 2017
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Albian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Edmontonia ‭”from Edomonton‭ ‬-‭ ‬After the Edmonton Formation‭”
Genus pronounced: Ed-mon-toe-nee-ah
Species: E.‭ ‬longiceps‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬rugosidens,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬schlessmani
Named by: John Ostrom – 1970
Classification: Family: Nodosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada and USA
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Ankylosauria – Family: Ankylosauridae – Sunfamily: Ankylosaurinae

Genus: Ankylosaurus ‭”fused lizard‭”
Genus pronounced: An-kie-los-ore-us
Species: A. magniventris (‬type‭)
Named by: Barnum Brown – 1908
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada: Alberta – Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Scollard Formation. USA, Montana – Hell Creek Formation, New Mexico – Kirtland Formation, Wyoming – Ferris Formation, Lance Formation
Size: 6.25 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Euoplocephalus ‭”well armoured head‭”
Genus pronounced: Yu-oh-plo-seff-ah-lus
Species: E. tutus (‬type‭)
Named by: Lawrence Lambe – 1910
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)
Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park‭ & ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Judith River Formation
Size: 6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Saichania ‭”beautiful one‭”
Genus pronounced: Sie-chan-ee-ah
Species: S. chulsanensis (‬type‭)
Named by: Teresa Maryanska – 1977
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)
Locality: Mongolia,‭ ‬Nemegt Basin‭ ‬-‭ ‬Barun Goyot Formation
Size: 6.6 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Pinacosaurus ‭”plank lizard‭”‬
Genus pronounced: Pin-ah-coe-sore-us
Species: P. grangeri (‬type‭), P. mephistocephalus
Named by: Charles W. Gilmore – 1933
Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae
Time: Cretaceous (Late Santonian to Campanian)
Locality: China,‭ ‬Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.‭ ‬Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bayan Mandahu Formation,‭ ‬Djadokhta Formation.‭ ‬Possibly in other areas of Asia,‭ ‬particularly in areas associated with known regions
Size: 5 meters long
Diet: Herbivore

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