Prehistoric Models: Thyreophora

Thyreophoras meaning “shield bearers” include the the armored dinosaurs that range of the early or lower Jurassic to end Cretaceous.  Stegosaurids were more sucessful in the middle and late Jurassic and are extinct by middle Cretaceous. Although the Ankylosaurids first apear in the Jurassic they are the dominant representatives of the group in the Cretaceous period. The are two main types: the “clubless” Nodosaurs and their more popular club-tailed Ankylosaur cousins.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora

Genus: Scutellosaurus “little shielded lizard”

Genus pronounced: Scu-tel-loe-sore-us

Species: S. lawleri (type)

Named by: Edwin Harris Cilbert – 1981

Classification: Suborder: Thyreophora

Time: Jurassic (Sinemurian to Pliensbachian)

Locality: USA: Arizona – Kayenta Formation

Size: 1.2 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Scelidosaurus “limb lizard”

Genus pronounced: Skel-is-doe-sore-us

Species: S. harrisonii (type)

Named by: Richard Owen – 1859

Classification: Suborder: Thyreophora – Superfamily: Thyreophoroidea – Family: Scelidosautidae

Time: Jurassic (Sinemurian to Pliensbachian)

Locality: England, Dorset

Size: 4 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Stegosauria

Genus: Gigantspinosaurus “giant-spined lizard”

Genus pronounced: Ji-gant-spy-noe-sore-us

Species: G. sichuanensis (type)

Named by: Ouyang – 1992

Classification: Clade: Stegosauria

Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Locality: China,‭ ‬Sichuan Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Shaximiao Formation

Size: 4.2 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Dacentrurus “Very sharp tail”

Genus pronounced: Da-sen-tru-rus

Species: D. armatus (type)

Named by: Frederic Augustus Lucas – 1902

Classification: Clade: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Dacentrurinae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Locality: England‭, France, Portugal and Spain

Size: 7 to 8 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Miragaia “Named after the location of its discovery”

Genus pronounced: Mee-rah-guy-sh

Species: M. longicollum (type)

Named by: Octávio Mateus,‭ ‬Susannah C.R.‭ ‬Maidment‭ & ‬Nicolai A.‭ ‬Christiansen‭ ‬-‭ ‬2009

Classification: Clade: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Dacentrurinae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)

Locality: Portugal – Sobral Formation

Size: 5.5 to 6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Kentrosaurus “spike lizard”

Genus pronounced: Ken-tro-sore-us

Species: K. aethiopicus (type)

Named by: Edwin Hennig – 1915

Classification: Clade: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae 

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Locality: Africa: Tanzania – Tendaguru Formation

Size: 4.5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Lexovisaurus “Lexovii lizaed”

Genus pronounced: Leks-o-ve-sore-us

Species: L. durobrivensis (type)

Named by: Robert Hoffstetter – 1957

Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae

Time: Mid to Late Jurassic

Locality: England‭ ‬-‭ ‬Oxford Clay Formation.‭ ‬Possibly France and Germany

Size: 5 to 6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Chialingosaurus “Chialing lizard after the Chialing River”

Genus pronounced: Chee-a-ling-o-sore-us

Species: C.‭ kuani (type)

Named by: C. C. Young – 1959

Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae 

Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Locality: China‭ ‬-‭ ‬Sichuan Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dashanpu/Upper Shaximiao Formation.

Size: 4 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Stegosaurus “Roof lizaed”

Genus pronounced: Steg-oh-sore-us

Species: S.‭ ‬armatus,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬stenops,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬ungulatus.

Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1877

Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)

Locality: USA: Colorado, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming, mostly associated with the Morrison Formation. Portugal – Alcobaça Formation.

Size: 7 to 9 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Wuerhosaurus “Wuerho lizaed”

Genus pronounced: Where-oh-sore-us

Species: W.‭ ‬homheni‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬W.‭ ‬ordosensis

Named by: Dong Zhiming – 1973

Classification: Suborder: Stegosauria – Family: Stegosauridae – Subfamily: Stegosaurinae

Time: Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)

Locality: China,: ‬Xinjiang‭ ‬-‭ ‬Tugulu Group,‭ ‬Inner Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ejinhoro Formation

Size: 5 to 7 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Ankylosauria

Genus: Minmi ‬After Minmi crossing,‭ ‬Australia‭)”

Genus pronounced: Min-me

Species: M.‭ paravertebra‭ (‬type‭)

Named by: Ralph Molnar – 1980

Classification: Clade: Ankylosauria

Time: Cretaceous (Aptian)

Locality: Australia, Minmi crossing

Size: 2 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Ankylosauria – Family: Nodosauridae

Genus: Hylaeosaurus “forest lizard”

Genus pronounced: Hy-lay-e-o-sore-us

Species: H.‭ armatus‭ (‬type‭)‬

Named by: Gideon Mantell – 1833

Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae

Time: Cretaceous (Valanginian)

Locality: England

Size: 3 to 7.6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Polacanthus “many spikes”

Genus pronounced: Po-la-can-thuss

Species: P.‭ foxii‭ (‬type‭), P. rudgwickensis

Named by: Richard Owen – 1865

Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae

Time: Cretaceous (Barremian)

Locality: United Kingdom, Isle of Wight, Sussex

Size: 4 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Gastonia “Gaston’s thing”

Genus pronounced: Gas-toe-nee-ah

Species: G. burgeri (‬type‭)‬, G. lorriemcwhinneyae

Named by: James Kirkland – 1998

Classification: Family: Nodosauridae – Subfamily: Polacanthinae

Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Albian)

Locality: USA: Utah – Cedar Mountian Formation

Size: 5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Sauropelta “lizard shield”

Genus pronounced: Sore-oh-pel-tah

Species: S. edwardsorum‭ (‬type‭)‬

Named by: John Ostrom – 1970

Classification: Family: Nodosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)

Locality: USA: Wyoming and Montana – Cloverly Formation

Size: 5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Borealopelta ‭(‬‭)‬

Genus pronounced: Bor-reel-o-pel-ta

Species: B.‭ markmitchelli (‬type‭)

Named by: Brown et al., 2017

Classification: Family: Nodosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Albian)

Locality: Canada: Alberta

Size: 6.6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Edmontonia ‭(‬From Edomonton‭ ‬-‭ ‬After the Edmonton Formation‭)‬

Genus pronounced: Ed-mon-toe-nee-ah

Species: E.‭ ‬longiceps‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬rugosidens,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬schlessmani

Named by: John Ostrom – 1970

Classification: Family: Nodosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)

Locality: Canada and USA

Size: 6.6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Ornithischia – Clade: Thyreophora – Suborder: Ankylosauria – Family: Ankylosauridae – Sunfamily: Ankylosaurinae

Genus: Ankylosaurus ‭(‬fused lizard‭)‬

Genus pronounced: An-kie-los-ore-us

Species: A. magniventris (‬type‭)

Named by: Barnum Brown – 1908

Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Locality: Canada: Alberta – Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Scollard Formation. USA, Montana – Hell Creek Formation, New Mexico – Kirtland Formation, Wyoming – Ferris Formation, Lance Formation

Size: 6.25 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Euoplocephalus ‭(well armoured head‭)‬

Genus pronounced: Yu-oh-plo-seff-ah-lus

Species: E. tutus (‬type‭)

Named by: Lawrence Lambe – 1910

Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian to Maastrichtian)

Locality: Canada,‭ ‬Alberta‭ ‬-‭ ‬Dinosaur Park‭ & ‬Horseshoe Canyon Formation.‭ ‬USA,‭ ‬Montana‭ ‬-‭ ‬Judith River Formation

Size: 6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Saichania ‭(‬beautiful one‭)‬

Genus pronounced: Sie-chan-ee-ah

Species: S. chulsanensis (‬type‭)

Named by: Teresa Maryanska – 1977

Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian)

Locality: Mongolia,‭ ‬Nemegt Basin‭ ‬-‭ ‬Barun Goyot Formation

Size: 6.6 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Pinacosaurus ‭(plank lizard‭)‬

Genus pronounced: Pin-ah-coe-sore-us

Species: P. grangeri (‬type‭), P. mephistocephalus

Named by: Charles W. Gilmore – 1933

Classification: Family: Ankylosauridae – Subfamily: Ankylosarinae

Time: Cretaceous (Late Santonian to Campanian)

Locality: China,‭ ‬Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region.‭ ‬Mongolia‭ ‬-‭ ‬Bayan Mandahu Formation,‭ ‬Djadokhta Formation.‭ ‬Possibly in other areas of Asia,‭ ‬particularly in areas associated with known regions

Size: 5 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

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