Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-Africa and Madagascar

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds

Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus, species, and subspecies: Bos taurus africanus
Common name: Ankole Cattle
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae, Subfamily: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Sahara Desert

Genus and species: Caracal caracal
Common name: Caracal
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes zerda
Common name: Feenec fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Africa Western Sahara to Sinai Peninsula
Diet: Carnivore (insects, small mammals, and birds)
Genus and species: Camelus dromedarius
Common name: Dromedary
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East and western Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Oryx dammah
Common name: Scimitar oryx
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Hippotraginae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rousettus aegyptiacus
Common name: Egyptian fruit bat
Classification: Family: Pteropodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Southern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore

Savanna Grasslands

Genus and species: Panthera leo
Common name: African Lion
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera pardus
Common name: Leopard
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Acinonyx jubatus
Common name: Cheetah
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Crocuta crocuta
Common name: Spotted hyena
Classification: Family: Hyaenidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Crocuta crocuta
Common name: Spotted hyena
Classification: Family: Hyaenidae
Time: Late Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Lycaon pictus
Common name: African Wild Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Suricata suricata
Common name: Meerkats
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Cynictis penicillata
Common name: Yellow mongoose
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Herpestes sanguineus
Common name: Common slender mongoose. black-tipped mongoose, or the black-tailed mongoose
Classification: Family: Herpestidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Sub Saharan Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Smutsia temminckii
Common name: Ground pangolin
Classification: Family: Manidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudorcas thomsonii
Common name: Thomson’s gazelle
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Antilopinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus
Common name: Blue Wildebeest
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Connochaetes taurinus
Common name: Blue Wildebeest
Specimen: Cow and calf
Classifiication: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Alcelaphinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Syncerus caffer
Common name: African Cape buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central to South Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Phacochoerus africanus
Common name: Common Warthog
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Common name: Giraffe camelopardalis
Common name: Giraffe
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore (Browser)
Genus and species: Ceratotherium simum
Common name: White Rhinoceras
Classification: Family: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Central and Southern Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Diceros bicornis
Common name: Black or Hook-lipped Rhinoceros
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range:
Africa
Diet:
Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris quagga
Common name: Plains Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris grevyi
Common name: Grévy’s Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: East Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subgenus and species: Equus Hippotgris zebra
Common name: Mountain Zebra
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus quagga quagga
Common name: Quagga
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene (Extinct 1883)
Range: South Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus: Loxodonta africana
Common name: African Bush Elephant
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya
Range: Africa
Size: Males 3.96m (13.0 ft) and Females 2m (6.6 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus and species: Orycteropus afer
Name meaning: “African ant bear”
Classification: Family: Orycteropodidae
Time: Early Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Africa
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Hippoptamus amphibius
Common name: Hippo
Classification: Family: Hippoptamidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South Africa and Nile River
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Struthio camelus
Common name: Common ostrich
Classification: Order: Struthioiformes – Family: Struthionidae
Range: Africa
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene
Genera: Naja Afronaja
Common name: Black-necked spitting cobra
Classification: Family: Elapidae
Range: Sub-Saharan Africa
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Coast, Rivers, and Waterways

Genus and species: Hippoptamus amphibius
Common name: Hippo
Classification: Family: Hippoptamidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central, South Africa and Nile River
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bubalus bubalis
Common name: Water buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Asia and Egypt
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Southern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Spheniscus demersus
Common name: African penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: South African coast
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Congo Rainforest

Genus and species: Cercopithecus ascanius
Common name:
Red-tailed monkey
Classification: Family:
Cercopithecidae
Time:
Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet:
Omnivores
Genus and species: Papio anubis
Common name: Olive baboon
Classification: Family: Cercopithecidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Mandrillus sphinx
Common name: Mandrill
Classification: Family: Cercopithecidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: West central Africa
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Pan troglodytes
Common name: Chimpanzees
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini – Subtribe: Panina
Time: Middle Pliocene to Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet: Omniovore
Genus and species: Gorilla gorilla
Common name: Gorilla
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Gorillini
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Central Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Okapia johnstoni
Common name: Okapi
Classification: Family: Giraffidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Tragelaphus eurycerus
Common name: Bongo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: West central Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Common Name: Manatee (sea cows)
Genus: Trichechus (Linnaeus 1758)
Species: T. senegalensis (West African manatee)
Size: 4.0m (13.1 ft)
Wieght: 590 kilograms (1,3000 lb)
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Southern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genera: Naja Afronaja
Common name: Black-necked spitting cobra
Classification: Family: Elapidae
Range: Sub-Saharan Africa
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Madagascar and Mauritius Islands

Genus and species: Propithecus candidus
Common name:
Silky Sifaka
Classification:
Superfamily: Lemuroidea – Family: Indriidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Northeastern Madagascar
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Lemur catta
Common name: Ring-tailed lemur
Classification: Superfamily: Lemuroidea – Family: Lemuridae
Time: Holocene
Location: Southwestern Madagascar
Diet: Omnivore
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Southern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus
Common name: Dodo
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae
Range: Mauritius
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?
Genus and species: Raphus cucullatus
Common name: Dodo
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae – Subfamily: Raphinae
Range: Mauritius
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore (fallen fruit, nuts, seeds, roots, and bulbs). Possible shellfish and crabs?

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

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