Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-Asia and Middle East

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds

Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela furo
Common name: Domesticated Ferret
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Erinaceus europaeus
Common name: European hedgehog
Classification: Family: Erinaceidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Hamsters
Classification: Family: Cricetidae – Subfamily: Cricetinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Ram or male sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Siberia (North)

Genus and species: Ovibos moschatus
Common name: Muskox or Musk Ox
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Alasaka, Northwest Territories, Yukon, norway, Sweden, and Siberia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Alces alces
Common name: Moose (bull)
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, northern Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rangifer tarandus
Common name: Reindeer or Caribou
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae, Tribe: Rangifer
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervus elaphus
Common name: Red deer (Buck, Dow, Fawn)
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, western Asia, and northwest Africa
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cervinae canadensis
Common name: Elk
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America and Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Panthera tigris
Common name: White Bengal or Siberian Tiger
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus lupus
Common name: Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes vulpes
Common name: Red Fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Northern Hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gulo gulo
Common name: Wolverine
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)
Genus and species: Sciurus vulgaris
Common name: Eurasian red squirrel
Classification: Family: Sciurus
Time: Holocene
Range: Asia and Europe
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bubo scandiacus
Common name: Snowy owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe, and Russia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Strix aluco
Common name: Tawny Owl, Brown owl
Classification: Order: Strigiformes – Family: Strigidae
Range: Europe and western Siberia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore (beetles, earthworms, rodents, small rabbits, and birds)
Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore

Central Asia

Genus and species: Panthera tigris
Common name: Tiger
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Panthera uncia
Common name: Snow Leopard
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus 
Common name: Grey Wolf or Gray Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Ailuropoda melanoleuca
Common name: Giant Panada
Classification: Family: Ursidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: China
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Aliurus fulgens
Common name: Red Panada
Classification: Family: Ailuridae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: China
Diet: Omnivore
Genus: Lutra
Common name: Otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae – Subfamily: Lutrinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Eurasian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mustela nivalis
Common name: Least Weasel
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Upper Northern hemisphere
Diet: Carnivore (mice, hamsters, gerbils, frogs, fish, birds, pikas, hares, and voles)
Genus and species: Pongo pygmaeus
Common name: Orangutans
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Ponginae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Southeast Asia and South China
Diet: Herbivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene
Common name: Gekko
Classification: Family: Gekkonidae
Range: Warm Climates
Time: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore

Southeast Asia

Genus and species: Helarctos malayanus
Common name: Sun Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae – Subfamily: Ursinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southeast Asia
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Caracal caracal
Common name: Caracal
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Nomascus gabriellae
Common name: Yellow-cheeked gibbon
Classification: Family: Hylobatidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Southeast Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Pongo pygmaeus
Common name: Orangutans
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Ponginae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Southeast Asia and South China
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Tarsius sp.
Common name: Tarsier
Classification: Suborder: Haplorhini – Clade: Omomyiformes – Family: Tarsiidae
Time: Holocene
Location: Southeast Asia
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
Common name: Sumatran Rhinoceras
Classification: Rhinocerotidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Southeast Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Acrocodia indica
Common name: Adult Malayan Tapir
Classifiaction: Tapiridae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Acrocodia indica
Common name: Young Malayan Tapir
Classifiaction: Tapiridae
Time: ??? to Holocene
Range: Southest Asia and Indonesia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bubalus bubalis
Common name: Water buffalo
Classification: Subfamily Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Asia and Egypt
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Crocodylus porosus
Common Name: Saltwater crocodile
Named by: Schneider – 1801
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Crocodylidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Locality:  Southeat Asia, Micronesia, and Sundaic region to northern Australia
Size: Males 6 m (20 ft), Femailes 3 m (10 ft)
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus and species: Varanus komodoensis
Common name: Komodo dragon
Range: Indonesia, Flores, Gili Montang, Rinca
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Common name: Gekko
Classification: Family: Gekkonidae
Range: Warm Climates
Time: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene
Genus and species: Goura victoria
Common name: Victoria crown pigeon
Classification: Order: Columbiformes – Family: Columbidae
Range: New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore (figs, seed, and invertebrates)
Genus and species: Cinnyris jugularis
Common name: Female Olive-backed sunbird or garden sunbird
Classification: Order: Passeriformes – Family: Nectariniidae
Range: Philippines
Time: Holocene
Diet: Nectar
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Originally from Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore

Indian Subcontinent

Genus and species: Panthera tigris
Common name: Tiger
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Patherinae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Melursus ursinus
Common name: Sloth Bear
Classification: Family: Ursidae – Subfamily: Ursinae
Time: Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Indian subcontinent
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus 
Common name: Grey Wolf or Gray Wolf
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North America, Europe and Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Elephas
Common name: Asian Elephant
Species: E. maximus 
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene 0 mya
Range: South Asia
Size: Males 2.75m (9.0 ft) and Females 2.40m (7.9 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus and species: Macaca silenus
Common name:
Lion-tailed macaque
Classification: Family:
Cercopithecidae
Time:
Holocene
Location:
Southwestern India
Diet:
Omnivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Wild boar
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe, Asia, Australia, Caribean, North America
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Phoenicopterus ruber
Common name: Flamingos
Classification: Order: Pheonicopterifermes – Family: Phoenicopteridae
Range: South America, Africa, Carribean, Florida, Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Europe, Western India and Asia
Time: Late Oligocene to Holocene
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Pavo cristatus
Common name: Common peafowl and blue peafowl
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Indian subcontinent
Time: Holocene
Diet: Omnivore (seed, fruits, insects, worms, frogs, lizards, and small mammals)
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Southern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Common name: Gekko
Classification: Family: Gekkonidae
Range: Warm Climates
Time: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Gavialis gangeticus
Common Name: Gharial
Named by: Schneider – 1801
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Gavialidae
Time: Pleisocene to Holocene
Locality:  India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar
Size: Males 3 to 6 m (9 ft 10 in to 19 ft 8 in), Femailes 2.6 to 4.5 m (8 ft 6 in to 14 ft 9in)
Diet: Carnivore
 

Middle East

Genus and species: Caracal caracal
Common name: Caracal
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Vulpes zerda
Common name: Feenec fox
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Africa Western Sahara to Sinai Peninsula
Diet: Carnivore (insects, small mammals, and birds)
Genus and species: Camelus bactrianus
Common name: Bactrian camel
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Central Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Camelus dromedarius
Common name: Dromedary
Classification: Family: Camelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East and western Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Capra nubiana
Common name: Nubian Ibex
Classification: Family: Caprinae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Middle East
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Capreolus capreolus
Common name: Roe deer
Classification: Subfamily: Capreolinae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Europe to Middle East
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Rousettus aegyptiacus
Common name: Egyptian fruit bat
Classification: Family: Pteropodidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Gekko
Classification: Family: Gekkonidae
Range: Warm Climates
Time: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Common name: Chameleon
Classification: Family: Chameleonidae
Range: Africa, Madagascar, Middle East, Morrocco, Southern India
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Insectivore

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

Gulf Coast

Genus and species: Smilodon fatalis
Common name: Saber-toothed cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Machairodontinae – Tribe: Smilodontini
Time: Early Pleistocene to Early Holocene
Range: The Americas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Mammuthus primigenius (Woolly Mammoth)
Classification: Family: Elephantidae
Time: Pleistocene (Late Ionian) to early Holocene.‭ ‬Some small populations survived to as recently as‭ ‬1700‭ ‬BP‭ (‬Before present‭)‬
Locations: North America to Eurasia
Size: Males 3.4m (11.2 ft) and Females 2.9m (9.5 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus: Mammut (Mastodon) “breast tooth” 
Classification: Family: Mammutidae
Time: Early Pliocene  to Pleistocene/early Holocene
Locations: Across Africa,‭ ‬Eurasia North America and Central America
Size: 2.3m (9.2 ft) hieght
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Homo sapiens
Name meaning: Humans, Mankind, You
Classification: Family: Hominidae – Subfamily: Homininae – Tribe: Hominini
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Location: Global
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Megaloceros giganteus
Common name: Irish elk
Classification: Subfamily: Cervinae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Middle Holocene
Range: Europe and Asia
Diet: Herbivore

To Geology Time Scale Homepage >>