Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-Australia and New Zealand

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Global Domesticated Breeds

Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Ram or male sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Leicester Longwool Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Black Faced Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Ovis aries
Common name: Valais Blacknose Sheep
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus and species: Caprini hircus
Common name: Domesticated Goat
Classification: Family: Bovidae – Subfamily: Caprinae
Time: Holocene (Neolihic to Recent)
Range: Europe (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore (Grazer)
Genus, species, and subspecies: Hybrid Bos (primigenius) taurus/indicus
Common name: American Brahman
Specimen: Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia, Brazil, and United States (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Bos primigenius
Common name: Holstein Friesian Cattle
Specimen: Cow, Calf, and Bull
Classification: Family: Bovinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Originate in Europe, Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Sus scrofa
Common name: Domesticated Pig
Classification: Family: Suidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Omnivore
Genus, subspecies, and subspecies: Equus africanus asinus
Common name: Donkey
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Equus ferus caballus
Common name: Black Shire Stallion (Domesticated)
Classification: Family: Equidae
Time: Holocene
Range: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and United States
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus
Common name: Domestic rabbit
Classification: Family: Leporidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global (domestic)
Diet: Herbivore
Common name: Hamsters
Classification: Family: Cricetidae – Subfamily: Cricetinae
Time: Middle Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global (domesticated)
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Mus musculus
Common name: House mouse
Classification: Family: Muridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Felis catus
Common name: Domestic cat
Classification: Family: Felidae – Subfamily: Felinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species and subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris
Common name: Domestic Dog
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus, species, and subspecies: Gallus gallus domesticus
Common name: Chicken
Classification: Order: Galliformes – Family: Phasianidae
Range: Global (Domesticated)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Austarlian Indigenous Species (and Dingos)

Genus: Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Common name: Platypus
Classification: Family: Ornithorhynchidae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Eastern Austrailia
Diet: Carnivore (annelid worms, insect larva, freshwater shrimp and crawfish)
Genus: Tachyglossidae aculeatus
Common name: Short-beaked echidna
Classification: Family: Tachyglossidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Austrailia, Tazmania, southest Papua New Guinea
Diet: Insectivore
Genus and species: Perameles gunnii
Common name: Common Rabbit Bandicoots
Classification: Family: Peramelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia and Tazmania
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Vombatus ursinus
Common name: Common Wombat
Classification: Superfamily: Vombatoidea – Family: Vombatidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia and Tasmania
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Vombatus ursinus
Common name: Common Wombat
Classification: Superfamily: Vombatoidea – Family: Vombatidae
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia and Tasmania
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Osphranter rufus
Common name: Red Kangaroo
Classification: Suborder: Macropodiformes – Family: Osphranter
Time: Early Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Common name: Wallabies
Classification: Suborder: Macropodiformes – Family: Macropodidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Australia
Diet: Herbivore (grazer)
Genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus
Common name: Male Koala
Classification: Family: Phascolarctidar
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Eastern Australia
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus
Common name: Female Koala and cub
Classification: Family: Phascolarctidae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Eastern Australia
Diet: Herbivore (browser)
Genus and species: Trichosurus vulpecula
Common name: Common brushtail possum
Classification: Family: Phalangeridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Tasmania
Diet: Omnivore
Genus and species: Thylacine cynocephalus
Common name: Tazmanian Tiger
Classification: Family: Thylacinidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene-1936
Range: Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sarcophilus harrisii
Common name: Tazmanian Devil
Classification: Family: Dasyuridae
Time: Late Holocene
Range: Australia and Tasmania
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Mymecobius fasciatus
Common name: Numbat
Classification: Family: Myrmecobiidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dasyuridae maculatus
Common name: Tiger quoll
Classification: Family: Dasyuridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Eastern Australia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dasyuridae maculatus
Common name: Tiger quoll
Classification: Family: Dasyuridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Eastern Australia
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Dromaius novaehollandiae
Common name: Emu
Classification: Order: Casuariiformes – Family: Casuariidae
Range: Australia
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Casuarius casuarius
Common name: Southern Cassowary
Classification: Order: Casuariiformes – Family: Casuariidae
Range: Northeastern Australia, Aru Islands, Indonesia, and Southern New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore and opportunistic omnivores
Genus and species: Calyptorhynchus banksii
Common name: Red-tailed black cockatoo
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae
Range: Australia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Melopsittacus undulatus
Common name: Budgerigar
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Psittacidae
Range: Australia
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Cacatua galerita
Common name: Yellow-crested cockatoo
Classification: Order: Psittaciformes – Family: Cacatuidae
Range: Australia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Crocodylus porosus
Common Name: Saltwater crocodile
Named by: Schneider – 1801
Classification: Order: Crocodilia, Family: Crocodylidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Locality:  Southeat Asia, Micronesia, and Sundaic region to northern Australia
Size: Males 6 m (20 ft), Femailes 3 m (10 ft)
Diet: Carnivore
 
Genus and species: Oxyuranus microlepidotus
Common name:
Taipan
Classification:
Family: Elapidae – Subfamily Hydrophiinae
Range:
Australia
Time:
Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Chlamydosaurus kingii
Common name: Frilled lizard
Classification: Family: Agamidae
Range: Northern Australia, Southern  New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Name and species: Testudo sp.
Common name: “Tortoises”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Testudinoidea – ‬Family: Testudinidae
Diet: Herbivores
Known locations: Temporate zones
Time period: Holocene
Genus, species and subspecies: Canus lupus dingo
Common name: Australian Dingo
Classification: Family: Canidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Australian
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Cygnus atratus
Common name: Black swan
Classification: Order: Anseriformes – Family: Anatidae
Range: Western regions of Australia
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Almost exclusively herbivore aquatic and marshland plants

New Zealand Indiginous species

Genus and species: Apteryx australis
Common name: Kiwi
Classification: Order: Apterygiformes – Family: Apterygidae
Range: New Zealand
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Herbivore
Genus and species: Megadyptes antipodes
Common name: Yellow-eyed penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast New Zealand and islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes sclateri
Common name: Erect-crested penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast New Zealand islands
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eudyptes schlegeli
Common name: Royal penguin
Classification: Order: Sphenisciformes- Family: Spheniscidae
Range: Southeast Indian Ocean
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

Austarlia

Name: Diprotodon ‭”Two forward teeth‭”‬
Pronounced: Di-proe-toe-don
Named By: Richard Owen‭ ‬-‭ ‬1838
Classification: Infraclass: Marsupialia – Order: ‬Diprotodontia – ‭ ‬Superfamily: Vombatiformes – Family: Diprotodontidae
Species: D.‭ ‬optatum‭ (‬type‭)
Size: Up 3‭ ‬meters long,‭ ‬2‭ ‬meters tall at the shoulder
Time period: Pleistocene (Calabrian to mid/late Tarantian)
Known locations: Australia
Diet: Herbivore

New Zealand

Name: Dinornis “Terrible bird”
Prnounced: Die-nor-nis
Named By: Richard Owen‭ ‬-‭ ‬1843
Classification: Infraclass: Paleognathae – Order: ‬Dinornithiformes – Family: ‬Dinornithidae
Species: D.‭ ‬novaezealandiae,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬robustus.
Diet: Herbivore
Size: ‬3.6‭ ‬meters high
Known locations: New Zealand
Time period: Late Pleistocene to Holocene

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