Geologic Time Scale: Holocene Epoch-World Oceans

The word Holocene is formed from two words in Ancient Greek “Holos” meaning “whole” and “Cene” meaning “new”/”recent” generally translating to “this epoch is “entirely new”.

The Holocene Epoch has been identified with the current warm period, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch, called the Flandrian interglacial. The Holocene corresponds with the rapid proliferation, growth, and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilization.

Meghalayan Age/Stage

0.0042 to 0 million years ago

The Meghalayan is the current Age and uppermost Stage of the Holocene Epoch and Quaternary Period. This is today or the “never ending” Cenozoic. The International Commision on Stratigraphy offically ratified in June of 2018 along with The Greenlanidian and Northgrippian.

Northgrippian Age/Stage

0.0082 to 0.0042 million years ago

The Northgrippian is the middle of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). 

Greenlandian Age/Stage

0.0117 to 0.0082 million years ago

The Greenlandian is the lowest of first of the three stages of the Holocene Epoch/Series. The International Commision on Stratigraphy officially ratified in June 2018. The name comes from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP).

Coral Reef

Common name: Sponge model
TIme: Holocene, Recent

 

Common name: Sponge model
TIme: Holocene, Recent

 

Common name: Sea Anemone
Time: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Anemone
Time: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Anemone
Time: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Jelly
Other name: Formersly “jellyfish”
TIme: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Jelly
Other name: Formersly “jellyfish”
TIme: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Jelly
Other name: Formersly “jellyfish”
TIme: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Jelly
Other name: Formersly “jellyfish”
TIme: Holocene, Recent
Common name: Sea Cucumber
Time range: Ordovician to Holocene

Coral Reef Sea Stars

Common name: Sea Star
Previous name: Formerly “Star Fish”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Sea Star
Previous name: Formerly “Star Fish”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Sea Star
Previous name: Formerly “Star Fish”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Sea Star
Previous name: Formerly “Star Fish”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Sea Star
Previous name: Formerly “Star Fish”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene

Coral Reef Mollusk

Common name: Clam
Time range:
Cambrian to Holocene
Common name: Snail
Time range:
Cambrian to Holocene
Common name: Snail
Time range:
Cambrian to Holocene
Common name: Cowry
Time range: ??? to Holocene
Genus and species: Nautilus pompilius
Common name: “Chambered nautilus”
Classification: Order: Nautilida – Family: Nautilidae
Location: Global
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Common name: Squid
Time Range:Early Devonian to Holocene
Genus and species: Architeuthis dux
Common name:
“Giant Squid”
Classification:
Order: Oegopsida – Family: Architeuthidae
Location:
Global
Time:
??? to Holocene
Common name: Octopus
Time range:
Middle Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Octopus
Time range:
Middle Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Octopus
Time range:
Middle Jurassic to Holocene

Coral Reef Crustaceans

Common name: Lobster
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Lobster
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Lobster
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Shrimp
Time Range: Lower Jurassic to Holocene
Genus and species: Bathynomus giganteus
Common name:
Giant Isopod
Isopod Time:
Middle Miocene to Holocene
Depths:
310 to 2120 meters
Size:
Up to 50 centimeters in length
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab (ventral)
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene

Coral Reef Fish

Genus and species: Dichotomyctere fluviatilis
Common name: Green pufferfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Tetraodontiformes – Suborder: Tetraodontoidei – Family: Tetraodontidae
Range: South and Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Amphiprion ocellaris
Common name: Ocellaris clownfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Pomacentridae
Range: Australia, Japan, and Southeast Asia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Centropyge loricula
Common name: Flame angelfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Perciformes – Family: Pomacanhidae
Range: Pacific Ocean ropical waters
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Paracanthurus hepatus
Common name: Blue tang, Regal tang, Palette surgeonfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Acanthuriformes – Family: Acanthuridae – Subfamily: Acanthurinae
Range: Indo Pacific: Great Barrier Reef of Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, East Africa, Samoa, Sri Lanka, and New Caledonia
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Pterois volitans
Common name: Lionfish, firefish, turkeyfish, butterfly-cod, or tastyfish
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Scorpaeniformes – Family: Scorpaenidae – Tribe: Pteroini
Range: Indo-Pacific
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Coral Reef Sea Horses

Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus
Common name: Seahorse
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus
Common name: Seahorse
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hippocampus heptagonus
Common name: Seahorse
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Syngnathiformes – Family: Syngnathidae – Subfamily: Hippocampinae
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Coral Reef Eels

Genus and species: Enchelycore schismatrhynchus
Common name: White-margined moral, brown moral eel, or funnel-nostril moray
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes – Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae
Range: Coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Gymnomuraena zebra
Common name: Zebra moral
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae – Subfamily: Muraeninae
Range: Western coast of Americas, Indo-Pacific, eastern coast of Africa, Red Sea, Galapagos, and Hawaii
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Anarchias seychellensis
Common name: Seychelles moray or the marbled reef-eel
Classification: Class: Actinopterygii – Order: Angulliformes Suborder: Muraenoidei – Family: Muraenidae
Range: Coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore

Indian Ocean: Lobe-Finned Fish

Genus and species: Latimeria chalumnae
Common name: West Indian Ocean Coelacanths
Pronounced: See-lo-can-th
Named By: J.‭ ‬L.‭ Smith‭ ‬-‭ ‬1939
Classification: Clade: Sarcopterygii – Clade: ‬Tetrapodomorpha – ‬Subclass: Actinistia – Order: Coelacanthiformes – Family: ‬Latimeria
Known locations: South and west coast of Africa
Time period: Holocene
Size: 170 centimeters long
Diet: Carnivore

Sharks, Rays, and Skates

Genus and species: Triaenodon obesus
Common name: Whitetip reef shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Carcharhinidae
Range: Tropical ocean regions except Atlantic Ocean
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Carcharhinus galapegensis
Common name: Galapagos shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Carcharhinidae
Range: Tropical ocean regions
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Galeocerdo cuvier
Common name: Tiger shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Carcharhinidae
Range: Tropical ocean regions
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
 Genus and species: Triakis semifasciata
Common name: Leopard Shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Triakidae
Range: North American west coast
Time: Paleocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Sphyrna mokarran
Common name: Great Hammerhead Shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Sphyrinidae
Range: Tropical ocean regions
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Carcharhinus leucas 
Common name: Bull shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Carcharhinidae
Range: Tropical ocean regions
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Glyphis glyphis
Common name: Speartooth shark
Classification: Order: Charchariniformes – Family: Carcharhinidae
Range: Northern Australia and southeastern New Guinea
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Megachasma pelagios
Common name: Megamouth shark
Classification: Order: Lamniformes – Family: Megachasmidae
Range: Global (except polar zones)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Cetorhinus maximus
Common name: Basking shark
Classification: Order: Lamniformes – Family: Cetorhinus
Range: Boreal to warm-temperate waters
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Rhincodon typus
Common name: Whale shark
Classification: Order: Orectoboliformes- Family: Rhicodontidae
Range: Tropical latitudes in world’s oceans
Time: Holocene
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Orectolobus maculatus
Common name: Spotted wobbegong
Classification: Order: Orectoboliformes- Family: Orectolobidae
Range: Southern Australian coast
Time: Late Jurassic to Holocene
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Carcharias taurus
Common name: Sand tiger shark
Classification: Order: Laminformes – Family: Odontaspididae
Range: Global (except polar zones)
Time: Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Carcharodon carcharias
Common name: Great white shark
Classification: Order: Lamniformes – Family: Lamnidae
Range: Global (except polar zones)
Time: Late Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Isurus paucus
Common name: Longfin mako shark
Classification: Order: Lamniformes – Family: Lamnidae
Range: Global (except polar zones)
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Alopias sp.
Common name: Thresher shark
Classification: Order: Lamniformes – Family: Alopiidae
Range: Global (except polar zones)
Time: Middle Eocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Chlamydoselachus anguineus
Common name: Frilled shark
Classification: Order: Hexanchiformes- Family: Chlamydoselachidae
Range: Global
Time:
Pleistocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Notorynchus cepedianus
Common name: Broadnose sevengill shark
Classification: Order: Hexanchiformes- Family: Hexanchidae
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Deania calcea
Common name: Birdbeak dogfish
Classification: Order: Squaliformes – Family: Centrophoridae
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Hydrolagus colliei
Common name: Spotted ratfis
Classification: Order: Chimaeriformes – Family: Chimaeridae
Range: Northeastern Pacific Ocean
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Heterodontus francisci 
Common name: 
Horn shark
Classification:
Order: Heterodontiformes – Family: Heterodontidae
Range:
United States and Mexico west coast
Time:
Early Jurassic to Holocene
Diet:
Carnivore
Genus and species: Pristis sp.
Common name: Sawfish or carpenter sharks
Classification: Order: Rhinopristiformes – Family: Pristidae
Range: Global
Time: Late Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: sp.
Common name: Ray
Classification: Order: Myliobatiformes- Family: —
Range: Global
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Manta sp.
Common name: Spotted eagle ray
Classification: Order: Myliobatiformes- Family: Aetobatidae
Range: Global tropical ocean coastal reagions
Time: Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Manta sp.
Common name: Manta ray
Classification: Order: Myliobatiformes- Family: Mobulidae
Range: Global tropical ocean reagions
Time: Early Miocene to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: sp.
Common name: Skate
Classification: Order: Rajiformes – Family: –
Range: Global
Time: Late Cretaceous to Holocene
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Chiloscyllium plagiosum
Common name: Whitespotted bamboo shark
Classification: Order: Orectoboliformes- Family: Hemiscyllidae
Range: Indo Pacific
Time: Holocene
Diet: Nocturnal small fish and invertebrates

Sea Turtles

Name and species: Dermochelys coriacea
Common name: “Leatherback sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Chelonioidea – ‬Family: Dermochelyidae – Subfamily: Dermochelyinae
Diet: Sea jellies and cephalopods
Known locations: Global
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Chelonia mydas
Common name: “Green sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Chelonioidea – ‬Family: Cheloniinae – Subfamily: Cheloniinae
Diet: Juveniles are carnivores, adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Chelonia mydas
Common name: “Green sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Chelonioidea – ‬Family: Cheloniinae – Subfamily: Cheloniinae
Diet: Juveniles are carnivores, adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Holocene
Name and species: Caretta caretta
Common name: “Loggerhead sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Chelonioidea – ‬Family: Cheloniinae – Subfamily: Carettinae
Diet: Adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Eocene to Holocene
Name and species: Caretta caretta
Common name: “Loggerhead sea turtle”
Classification: Order: Testudines -‭ Suborder: Cryptodira – Superfamily: Chelonioidea – ‬Family: Cheloniinae – Subfamily: Carettinae
Diet: Adults are omnivores
Known locations: Global non artic
Time period: Eocene to Holocene

Tooth Whales and Dolphins

Genus and species: Physeter macrocephalus
Common name: Sperm whales
Classification: Family: Physeteridae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Delphinapterus leucas
Common name: Beluga Cow and Calf
Classification: Family: Monodontidae
Time: Quaternary to Holocene
Range: Artic Ocean
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Tursiops truncatus
Common name: Bottlenose Dolphin
Classification: Family: Delphinidae – Subfamily: Delphiniae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global, non polar oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Tursiops truncatus
Common name: Bottlenose Dolphin
Classification: Family: Delphinidae – Subfamily: Delphiniae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global, non polar oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Orcinus orca
Common name: Killer whale
Classification: Family: Delphinidae
Time: Pliocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Carnivore

Baleen Whales

Genus and species: Eschrichtius robustus
Common name: Gray whale
Classification: Family: Eschrichtiidae
Time: Late Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North American west coast northwest Asian coast
Diet: Filter Feeders
Genus and species: Megaptera novaeangliae
Common name: Humpback whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Miocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Balaenoptera borealis
Common name: Sei whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder
Genus and species: Balaenoptera musculus
Common name: Blue whale
Classification: Family: Balaenopteridae
Time: Middle Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Global
Diet: Filter Feeder

Walrus, Seals, and Sea Lions

Genus and species: Phoca vitulina
Common name: Harbor (common) Seal
Classification: Family: Phocidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern seas
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Zalophus californianus
Common name: Californian Sea Lion
Classification: Family: Otariidae
Time: Holocene
Range: North American west coast
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Arctocephalus pusillus
Common name: Fur Seal
Classification: Family: Otariidae  Subfamily: Arctocephalinae
Time: Holocene
Range: Southern Oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Odobenus rosmarus
Common name: Male Pacific walrus
Classification: Family: Odobenidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: North Pole surrounding oceans
Diet: Carnivore
Genus and species: Eumetopias jubatus
Common name: Female Steller sea lion
Classification: Family: Odobenidae
Time: Pleistocene to Holocene
Range: Pacific Northwest
Diet: Carnivore
Genus: Enhydra lutris
Common name: Sea otter
Classification: Family: Mustelidae
Time: Holocene
Range: Northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean
Diet: Carnivore (fsea urchins, various mollusks, crustaceans, and fish)

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