Prehistroic Models: Arthropoda

Arthropoda meaning “jointed foot”, is the largest animal phylum on Earth. The next question is what is an arthropods? You may know them more commonly as “bugs”. The first arthropods appeared in the fossil record in the Early Cambrian period over 540 million years ago. During the Silurian Period around 420 million years ago, arthropods were some were some of the first animals to adapt to land.

Click here to see my arthropod fossil specimen of Trilobites, Eurypterids, Crustaceans, and Insects. I also have modern Crustacean sea shell specimen.

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda “jointed foot” – Subphylum: Trilobitomorpha – Class: Trilobita

(trilobites)

Early Cambrian to Late Permian

Genus and Species: Olenoides nevadensis
Classification: 
Order: Corynexochida – Family: Dorypygidae
Described by: 
Meek, 1877
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
10 centimeter (dorsal view)
Genus and Species: Olenoides nevadensis
Classification: 
Order: Corynexochida – Family: Dorypygidae
Described by: 
Meek, 1877
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
10 centimeter (ventral view)
Genus and Species: Olenoides nevadensis
Classification: 
Order: Corynexochida – Family: Dorypygidae
Described by: 
Meek, 1877
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
10 centimeter
Genus and Species: Olenoides nevadensis
Classification: 
Order: Corynexochida – Family: Dorypygidae
Described by: 
Meek, 1877
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
10 centimeter
Genus: Tricrepicephalidae sp.
Classification: 
Order: Ptychopariida – Superfamily: Crepicephalacea – Family: Tricrepicephalidae
Described by:
Kobayashi, 1935
Time:
Late Cambrian Period (Dresbachian)
Locality:
North America
Size:
19 millimeters
Common name: Trilobites
Time range: Cambrian to Permian

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda “jointed foot” – Class: Dinocaridida “terror shrimp”

(Opabinia and Anomalocaris)

Cambrian to Devonian

Genus and Species: Opabinia regalis
Classification:
Family: Opabiniidae
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time:
Cambrian Period 505 to 487 nillion years ago
Locality:
Middle Cambrian Burges Shale Lagerstatte of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
2 to 3 inches
Genus and Species: Opabinia regalis
Classification:
Family: Opabiniidae
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time:
Cambrian Period 505 to 487 nillion years ago
Locality:
Middle Cambrian Burges Shale Lagerstatte of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
2 to 3 inches
Genus: Anomalocaris
Classification: 
Order: Radiodonta – Family: Anomalocaridiae
Described by:
Whiteaves, 1892
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
1 meter
Genus: Anomalocaris
Classification: 
Order: Radiodonta – Family: Anomalocaridiae
Described by:
Whiteaves, 1892
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
1 meter

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda “jointed foot” – (unranked): Aritopoda – (unranked): Vissicaudata

(Cambrian arthropods)

Early to Middle Cambrian

(dorsal view)
Genus and Species: Sidneyia inexpectans
Described by:
Walcott, 1911
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
1.5 to 12.7 centimeter
(lateral view)
Genus and Species: Sidneyia inexpectans
Described by:
Walcott, 1911
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
1.5 to 12.7 centimeter
(ventral view)
Genus and Species: Sidneyia inexpectans
Described by:
Walcott, 1911
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size:
1.5 to 12.7 centimeter

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda “jointed foot” – Order: Nektaspida – Family: Naraoiidae

(Cambrian arthropods)

Cambrian to Late Silurian

(dorsal view)
Genus and Species: Naraoia compacta
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size: 2 to 4.5 centimeter
(lateral view)
Genus and Species: Naraoia compacta
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size: 2 to 4.5 centimeter
(ventral view)
Genus and Species: Naraoia compacta
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size: 2 to 4.5 centimeter

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda “jointed foot” – Class: Marrellomorpha – Order: Marrellida

(marrellida)

Mid Cambrian to Devonian

(dorsal view)
Genus and Species: Marrella splendens
Classification: Family:
Marrellidae
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time: 
Middle Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size: 
2 centimeters
(lateral view)
Genus and Species: Marrella splendens
Classification: Family:
Marrellidae
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time: 
Middle Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size: 
2 centimeters
(ventral view)
Genus and Species: Marrella splendens
Classification: Family:
Marrellidae
Described by:
Walcott, 1912
Time: 
Middle Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Size: 
2 centimeters

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda “jointed foot” – Clade: Pancrustacea – Subphylum: Crustacea – Class: Malacostraca

(crabs, isopod, shrimp, and lobster)

Early Cambrian to Holocene

Genus: Canadaspis “shield of Canada”
Classification:
Order: Hymenocarina – Family: Canadaspididae
Described by:
Briggs, 1978
Time:
Cambrian Period
Locality: 
Burges Shale of British Columbia, Canada
Genus and species: Bathynomus giganteus
Common name:
Giant Isopod
Isopod Time:
Middle Miocene to Holocene
Depths:
310 to 2120 meters
Size:
Up to 50 centimeters in length
Common name: Shrimp
Time Range: Lower Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Lobster
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Lobster
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Lobster
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab (dorsal)
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab (ventral)
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Crab
Time range: Early Jurassic to Holocene

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda – Subphylum: Chelicerata – Order: Xiphosura – Suborder: Xiphosurida – Family: Limulidae

(horseshoe crabs)

Triassic to Holocene

(dorsal view)
Common Name: Horseshoe Crab
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
(lateral view)
Common Name: Horseshoe Crab
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
(ventral view)
Common Name: Horseshoe Crab
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Horseshoe Crab
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Specimen: Eggs
Common name: Horseshoe Crab
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Specimen: Hatchlings
Common name: Horseshoe Crab
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Specimen: Juveniles

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda – Subphylum: Chelicerata – Clade: Sclerophorata – Order: Eurypterida

(sea scorpions)

Middle Ordovician to Late Permian

Name: Eurypterus ‭”wide wing‭”‬.
Pronounced: You-rip-teh-rus.
Named By: James Ellsworth De Kay‭ ‬-‭ ‬1825.
Classification: Eurypterida,‭ ‬Eurypteroidea,‭ ‬Eurypteridae.
Species: E.‭ ‬remipes‭ (‬type‭)‬,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬dekayi,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬hankeni,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬laculatus,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬lacustris,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬leopoldi,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬megalops,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬pittsfordensis,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬quebecensis,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬serratus,‭ ‬E.‭ ‬tetragonophthalmus.‭ Also E.‭ ‬cephalaspis
Locality: Eastern Canada and the United States.‭ ‬Across Europe.
Time period: Silurian (Late Llandovery to Pridoli).
Size: 13‭ ‬centimeters to‭ ‬1.3‭ ‬meters long.
Diet: 
Carnivore.
Name: Pterygotus “finned one or wing animal”.
Pronounced: Teh-ry-go-tus.
Named By: Louis Agassiz – 1849.
Classification: Order: Eurypterida – Superfamily: Pterygotioidea – Family: Pterygotidae.
Species: P. anglicus (type), P. arcuatus, P. barrandei , P. bolivianus, P. carmani, P. cobbi, P. denticulatus, P. floridanus, P. gaspesiensis, P. kopaninensis, P. lanarkensis, P. lightbodyi, P. ludensis, P. marylandicus, P. monroensis.
Locality: Middle Silurian in Europe (British Isles) and Devonian in North America. 
Time period: Silurian to mid Devonian.
Large individuals up to 1.75 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore.
Name: Pterygotus “finned one or wing animal”.
Pronounced: Teh-ry-go-tus.
Named By: Louis Agassiz – 1849.
Classification: Order: Eurypterida – Superfamily: Pterygotioidea – Family: Pterygotidae.
Species: P. anglicus (type), P. arcuatus, P. barrandei , P. bolivianus, P. carmani, P. cobbi, P. denticulatus, P. floridanus, P. gaspesiensis, P. kopaninensis, P. lanarkensis, P. lightbodyi, P. ludensis, P. marylandicus, P. monroensis.
Locality: Middle Silurian in Europe (British Isles) and Devonian in North America. 
Time period: Silurian to mid Devonian.
Large individuals up to 1.75 meters long.
Diet: Carnivore.

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda – Subphylum: Chelicerata – Class: Arachnida – Order: Scorpiones

(scorpions)

Late Silurian to Holocene

Common name: Scorpion
Common name: Scorpion
Common name: Scorpion

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda – Subphylum: Chelicerata – Class: Arachnida – Order: Aranaea

(spiders)

Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) to Holocene

Common name: Spider
Common name: Spider
Common name: Spider
Genus: Grammostola pulchra
Common name:
Brazilian Black Tarantula
Classification: Order: Araneae – Infraorder: Mygalomorphae – Family: Theraphosidae
Time: Holocene
Locality:
South America

Domain: Eukarya – Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda – Subphylum: Myriapoda

(centipede and millipede)

Late Silurian to Holocene

Common name: Centipede
Classification: Class: Chilopoda
Common name:  Centipede
Classification: Class: Chilopoda
Common name: Millipede
Classification: Class: Diplopoda

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Arthropoda – Subphylum: Hexapoda – Class: Insecta

(insects)

Lower Devonian to Holocene

Common name: Cicada
Order: Hemiptera “true bugs”
Time range: Late Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Stag Beetle
Order: Coleoptera “beetles”
Time range: Middle Jurassic to Holocene
Common name: Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle
Order: Coleoptera “beetles”
Time range: Holocene
Common name: Rhinoceros Beetle
Order: Coleoptera “beetles”
Time range: Eocene to Holocene
Common name: Lady Beetle “Lady Bugs”
Order: Coleoptera “beetles”
Time range: Eocene to Holocene
Common name: Butterfly
Order: Lepidoptera “butterflies and moths”
Time range: Palaeocene to Holocene
Common names: Dragonfly
Order: Odonata “dragonflies”
Time range: Late Carboniferous to Holocene
Genus and species: Somatochlora hineana
Common name: Dragonfly
Classification: Family: Corduliidae
Range: Great Lakes region, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, and Wisconsin; North America
Time: Holocene
Diet: Insectivore
Common name: Mantis
Order: Mantodea “mantises”
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Cockroach
Order: Blattodea “roaches”
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Crickets
Order: Horthoptera “grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, bush crickets or katydids”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: Grasshopper
Order: Horthoptera “grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, bush crickets or katydids”
Time range: Triassic to Holocene
Common name: House-fly (Musca domestica)
Order: Diptera “flies and mosquitoes”
Time range: Holocene
Common name: Horse-fly
Order: Diptera “flies and mosquitoes”
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Mosquito
Order: Diptera “flies and mosquitoes”
Time range: Middle Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Ants
Order: Hymenoptera “sawflies, wasp, bees, and ants”
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene
Common name: Bees
Order: Hymenoptera “sawflies, wasp, bees, and ants”
Time range: Early Cretaceous to Holocene

The video below is from my YouTube Jurassic James 65:

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