Prehistoric Models: Sauropodomorpha

Sauropodmorphs meaning “lizard foot form” are commonly called the “long necked dinosaurs” include the largest animals to ever walk on land. All sauropodmorphs were herbivores and can be found on every continent. The earliest members of this group appear in the Late Triassic 225 million years ago; and they are wiped out like all non avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

PROSAUROPODS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Prosauropoda

 

Genus: Mussasaurus “mouse lizard”
Genus pronounced: Mus-sore-us
Species: M. patagonicus (type)
Named by:  J.‭ ‬F.‭ ‬Bonaparte‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬Vince‭ ‬-‭ ‬1979
Classification: Clade: Prosauropoda
Time: Late Triassic (Norian/Rhaetian)
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Santa Cruz Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬El Tranquilo Formation
Size: 3 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Lufengosaurus “Lufeng lizard”
Genus pronounced: Lu-feng-sore-us
Species: L. engelhardti (type), L. magmus 
Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1837
Classification: Family: Massospondylidae
Time: Late Triassic (Norian to Rhaetian)
Locality: Across Europe.‭ ‬Also in Greenland‭ ‬-‭ ‬Fleming Fjord Formation
Size: 5 to 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Plateosaurus “broad lizard”
Genus pronounced: Plat -e-o-sore-us
Species: P. engelhardti (type), P. gracilis
Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1837
Classification: Family: Plateosauridae
Time: Late Triassic (Norian to Rhaetian)
Locality: Across Europe.‭ ‬Also in Greenland‭ ‬-‭ ‬Fleming Fjord Formation
Size: 5 to 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

SAUROPODS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda

 

Genus: Rhoetosaurus “Rhoetos lizard”
Genus pronounced: Rhoe-toe-sore-us
Species: R. brownei (type)
Named by: Heber Longman – 1926
Classification: Clade: Sauropoda
Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian)
Locality: Australia, Queensland – Hutton Sandstone Formation
Size: 12 to 15 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Barapasaurus “big legged lizard”
Genus pronounced: Bah-rap-o-sore-us
Species: B. tagorei (type)
Named by: Jain,‭ ‬Kutty,‭ ‬Roy-Chowdhury and Chatterjee‭ ‬-‭ ‬1975.
Classification: Clade: Sauropoda
Time: Jurassic (Toarcian)
Locality: India
Size: 14 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Jobaria ‭(‬Jobar‭ ‬-‭ ‬after a creature in African mythology‭)‬.
Genus pronounced: Jo-ba-re-ah.
Species:J.‭ ‬tiguidensis‭ (‬type‭).
Named by: JP.C.‭ ‬Sereno.,‭ ‬A.L.‭ ‬Beck,‭ ‬D.B.‭ ‬Dutheil,‭ ‬H.C.E.‭ ‬Larsson,‭ ‬G.H.‭ ‬Lyon,‭ ‬B.‭ ‬Moussa,‭ ‬R.W.‭ ‬Sadleir,‭ ‬C.A.‭ ‬Sidor,‭ ‬D.J.‭ ‬Varricchio,‭ ‬G.P.‭ ‬Wilson‭ & ‬J.A.‭ ‬Wilson‭ ‬-‭ ‬1999.‭
Classification: Clade: Sauropoda
Time: Jurassic (Bathonian to Oxfordian) – Tiouraren formation. Initially considered to be of the early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Barremian).
Locality: Niger,‭ ‬Abaka -‭ ‬Tiouraren Formation.
Size: About 21 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

CETIOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Centiosauridae

 

Genus: Cetiosaurus “Whale lizard”
Genus pronounced: See-e-oh-sore-us
Species: C.‭ ‬brevis,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬longus,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬medius,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬mogrebiensis,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬oxoniensis
Named by: Richard Owen – 1842
Classification: Family: Cetiosauridae
Time: Middle Jurassic (Bajocian to Bathonian)
Locality: England, France, Morocco
Size: 16 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Shunosaurus “Shu lizard”
Genus pronounced: Shu-no-sore-us
Species: S. lii (type)
Named by: Ding, Zhou, & Zhang – 1983
Classification: Family: Cetiosauridae
Time: Jurassic (Bathonian to Callovian)
Locality: China – Shangshaximiao Formation, Xiashaximiao Formation
Size: 9.5 to 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

MAMENCHISAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Family: Mamenchisauridae

Genus: Mamenchisaurus Mamenxi lizard
Genus pronounced: Ma-men-chi-sore-us.
Species:M. constructus (type),M. anyuensis, M. hochuanensis, M. jingyanensis, M. sinocanadorum, M. youngi.
Named by: C. C. Young – 1954.
Classification: Family: Mamanchisauridae
Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian)
Locality: China
Size: 35 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Mamenchisaurus Mamenxi lizard
Genus pronounced: Ma-men-chi-sore-us.
Species:M. constructus (type),M. anyuensis, M. hochuanensis, M. jingyanensis, M. sinocanadorum, M. youngi.
Named by: C. C. Young – 1954.
Classification: Family: Mamanchisauridae
Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian)
Locality: China
Size: 35 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

DIPLODOCOIDS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Superfamily: Diplodocoidea

Genus: Apatosaurus “deceptive lizard”
Genus pronounced: A-pat-oh-sore-us
Species: E. ajax (type), A. louisae
Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1877
Classification: Family: Diplodocidae – Tribe: Apatosaurinae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Oklahoma,‭ ‬Utah and Wyoming
Size: 20 to 23 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Brontosaurus “thunder lizard”
Genus pronounced: Bron-toe-sore-us
Species: B. excelsus (type), B. parvus, B. yahnahpin
Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1879
Classification: Family: Diplodocidae – Tribe: Apatosaurinae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)
Locality: USA‭ ‬-‭ ‬Morrison Formation deposits in Wyoming and Utah
Size: 21 to 22 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Diplodocus “double beam”
Genus pronounced: Dip-low-doe-cus
Species: D. longus (type), D. hayi, D. hallorum
Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1878
Classification: Family: Diplodocidae – Tribe: Diplodocinae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬Utah,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Morrison Formation.
Size: up to 33 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Rebbachisaurus “Rebbach lizard”
Genus pronounced: Reb-bok-e-sore-us
Species: R. garasbae (type), R. tamesnensis?
Named by: R. Lavocat – 1954
Classification: Family: Rebbachisauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Africa, Morocco – Aoufous Formation.
Size: 20 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Nigersaurus “lizard from Niger”
Genus pronounced: Nee-jer-sore-us
Species: N. taqueti (type)
Named by: Sereno,‭ ‬Beck,‭ ‬Dutheil,‭ ‬Larsson,‭ ‬Lyon,‭ ‬Moussa,‭ ‬Sadleir,‭ ‬Sidor,‭ ‬Varricchio,‭ ‬G.P.‭ ‬Wilson and J.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Wilson‭ ‬-‭ ‬1999
Classification: Family: Rebbachisauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian or Albian)
Locality: Africa, Niger, Elrhaz Formation.
Size: 9 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Agustinia “Named after Agustin Martinelli, the discoverer
Genus pronounced: A-gus-tin-e-ah
Species: A. ligabuei (type)
Named by:  Jose Bonaparte ‬-‭ ‬1999
Classification: Superfamily: Diplodocoidea/Titanosauridae?
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Neuquen Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lohan Cura Formation
Size: 15 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Amargosaurus “Amarga lizard
Genus pronounced: A-mar-gah-sore-us
Species: N. taqueti (type)
Named by:  Leonardo Salgado‭ & ‬José Bonaparte‭ ‬-‭ ‬1991
Classification: Family: Dicraeosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)
Locality: Argentina, Neuquen province – La Amarga Formation
Size: 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Bajadasaurus Bajada lizard
Genus pronounced: Ba-ha-da-sor-us
Species: B.‭ ‬pronuspinax‭ (‬type‭)‬
Named by: P.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Gallina,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬Apesteguía,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬I.‭ ‬Canale‭ & ‬A.‭ ‬Haluza‭ ‬-‭ ‬2019.
Classification: Family: Dicraeosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Berriasian to Valanginian)
Locality: Argentina – Bajada Colorada Formation
Size: Uncertain meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

MACRONARIA

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Clade: Macronaria

 

Genus: Europasaurus “European lizard”
Genus pronounced: Yu-ro-pa-sore-us
Species: E. holgeri (type)
Named by: Mateus,‭ ‬Laven,‭ & ‬Knötschke vide Sander et al‭ ‬-‭ ‬2006
Classification: Clade: Camarasauromorpha
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)
Locality: Germany
Size: 6.2 to 10 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Camarasaurus “Chambered lizard”
Genus pronounced: Cam-ah-sore-us
Species: C. supremus (type), C. grandis, C. lentus
Named by: Edward Drinker Cope – 1877
Classification: Clade: Camarasauromorpha
Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬Wyoming,‭ ‬New Mexico,‭ ‬Colorado‭ & ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬Morrison Formation
Size: 15 to 23 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Brachiosaurus “arm lizard”
Genus pronounced: Brak-he-o-sore-us
Species: B. altithorax (type)
Named by: Elmer S. Riggs – 1903
Classification: Clade: Titanosauriformes – Family: Brachiosauridae
Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)
Locality: USA,‭ Morrison Formation
Size: 26 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

TITANOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Clade: Macronaria – Clade: Titanosauriformes – Clade: Titanosauria

 

Genus: Paralititan “tidal titan”
Genus pronounced: Pah-ral-e-ty-tan
Species: P. stromeri (type)
Named by: Joshua B.‭ ‬Smith,‭ ‬Matthew C.‭ ‬Lamanna,‭ ‬Kenneth J.‭ ‬Lacovara,‭ ‬Peter Dodson,‭ ‬Jennifer R.‭ ‬Smith,‭ ‬Jason C.‭ ‬Poole,‭ ‬Robert Giegengack‭ & ‬Yousri Attia‭ ‬-‭ ‬2001
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Egypt – Bahariya Formation
Size: 26 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Alamosaurus “Alamo lizard”
Genus pronounced: Al-ah-moe-sore-us
Species: A. sanjuanensis (type)
Named by: Charles W. Gilmore – 1922
Classification: Family: Saltasauridea – Clade: Opisthocoelicaudiinae
Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
Locality: USA,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ojo Alamo Formation‭ (‬possibly part of the Kirtland Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation and Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Black Peaks Formation,‭ ‬El Picacho Formation and Javelina Formation
Size: 20 to 24 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Saltasaurus “Salta lizard”
Genus pronounced: Salt-ah-sore-us
Species: S. loricatus (type)
Named by: Bonaparte and Powell – 1980
Classification: Family: Saltasauridea
Time: Cretaceous (Campanian/Maastrichtian)
Locality: Argentina, Salta Province – Lecho Formation
Size: 12 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Argentinosaurus “Argentina lizard”
Genus pronounced: Ar-jen-teen-oh-sore-us
Species: A. huinculensis (type)
Named by: José Bonaparte‭ & ‬Rodolfo Coria‭ ‬-‭ ‬1993
Classification: Family: Antarctosauridae
Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)
Locality: Argentina, Huincul Formation
Size: 22-35 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Daxiatitan “Daxia titan”
Genus pronounced: Dax-e-ah-tie-tan
Species: D. binglingi (type)
Named by: H-L.‭ ‬You,‭ ‬D-Q Li,‭ ‬L-Q Zhou‭ & ‬Q Ji‭ ‬-‭ ‬2008
Classification: Superfamily: Titanosauroidea
Time: Early Cretaceous (Barremian)
Locality: China, Gansu Province
Size: 21 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Malawisaurus “Malawi lizard”
Genus pronounced: Ma-la-wee-sore-us
Species: M. dixeyi (type)
Named by: L. L. Jacobs, D. A. Winkler, W. R. Downs & E. M. Gomani – 1993
Classification: Superfamily: Titanosauroidea – Clade: Lithostrotia
Time: Cretaceous (Aptian)
Locality: Africa,‭ ‬Malawi – Dinosaur Beds Formation
Size: 16 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Ampelosaurus “Vine lizard”
Genus pronounced: Am-pe-lo-sore-us.
Species: A. atacis (type)
Named by: Jean Le Loeuff‭ ‬-‭ ‬1995.
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian)
Locality: France‭ ‬-‭ ‬Marnes Rouges Inférieures Formation.
Size: 16 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 
Genus: Patagotitan“Patagonian giant”
Genus pronounced: Pah-tah-o-ty-tan
Species: P.‭ ‬mayorum‭(‬type‭)
Named by:J.‭ ‬L.‭ ‬Carballido,‭ ‬D.‭ ‬Pol,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Otero,‭ ‬I.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Cerda,‭ ‬L.‭ ‬Salgado,‭ ‬A.‭ ‬C.‭ ‬Garrido,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬Ramezani,‭ ‬N.‭ ‬R.‭ ‬Cúneo‭ & ‬J.‭ ‬M.‭ ‬Krause‭ ‬-‭ ‬2017
Classification: Clade: Titanosauria – Clade: Lognkosauria
Time: Cretaceous (Albian )
Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Chubut Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Cerro Barcino Formation
Size: 37 meters long
Diet: Herbivore
 

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