Prehistoric Models: Sauropodomorpha

Sauropodmorphs meaning “lizard foot form” are commonly called the “long necked dinosaurs” include the largest animals to ever walk on land. All sauropodmorphs were herbivores and can be found on every continent. The earliest members of this group appear in the Late Triassic 225 million years ago; and they are wiped out like all non avian dinosaurs 66 million years ago.

PROSAUROPODS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Prosauropoda

 

Genus: Mussasaurus “mouse lizard”

Genus pronounced: Mus-sore-us

Species: M. patagonicus (type)

Named by:  J.‭ ‬F.‭ ‬Bonaparte‭ & ‬M.‭ ‬Vince‭ ‬-‭ ‬1979

Classification: Clade: Prosauropoda

Time: Late Triassic (Norian/Rhaetian)

Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Santa Cruz Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬El Tranquilo Formation

Size: 3 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Lufengosaurus “Lufeng lizard”

Genus pronounced: Lu-feng-sore-us

Species: L. engelhardti (type), L. magmus 

Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1837

Classification: Family: Massospondylidae

Time: Late Triassic (Norian to Rhaetian)

Locality: Across Europe.‭ ‬Also in Greenland‭ ‬-‭ ‬Fleming Fjord Formation

Size: 5 to 10 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Plateosaurus “broad lizard”

Genus pronounced: Plat -e-o-sore-us

Species: P. engelhardti (type), P. gracilis

Named by: Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer‭ ‬-‭ ‬1837

Classification: Family: Plateosauridae

Time: Late Triassic (Norian to Rhaetian)

Locality: Across Europe.‭ ‬Also in Greenland‭ ‬-‭ ‬Fleming Fjord Formation

Size: 5 to 10 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

SAUROPODS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda

 

Genus: Rhoetosaurus “Rhoetos lizard”

Genus pronounced: Rhoe-toe-sore-us

Species: R. brownei (type)

Named by: Heber Longman – 1926

Classification: Clade: Sauropoda

Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Locality: Australia, Queensland – Hutton Sandstone Formation

Size: 12 to 15 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Barapasaurus “big legged lizard”

Genus pronounced: Bah-rap-o-sore-us

Species: B. tagorei (type)

Named by: Jain,‭ ‬Kutty,‭ ‬Roy-Chowdhury and Chatterjee‭ ‬-‭ ‬1975.

Classification: Clade: Sauropoda

Time: Jurassic (Toarcian)

Locality: India

Size: 14 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Jobaria ‭(‬Jobar‭ ‬-‭ ‬after a creature in African mythology‭)‬.

Genus pronounced: Jo-ba-re-ah.

Species:J.‭ ‬tiguidensis‭ (‬type‭).

Named by: JP.C.‭ ‬Sereno.,‭ ‬A.L.‭ ‬Beck,‭ ‬D.B.‭ ‬Dutheil,‭ ‬H.C.E.‭ ‬Larsson,‭ ‬G.H.‭ ‬Lyon,‭ ‬B.‭ ‬Moussa,‭ ‬R.W.‭ ‬Sadleir,‭ ‬C.A.‭ ‬Sidor,‭ ‬D.J.‭ ‬Varricchio,‭ ‬G.P.‭ ‬Wilson‭ & ‬J.A.‭ ‬Wilson‭ ‬-‭ ‬1999.‭

Classification: Clade: Sauropoda

Time: Jurassic (Bathonian to Oxfordian) – Tiouraren formation. Initially considered to be of the early Cretaceous (Hauterivian to Barremian).

Locality: Niger,‭ ‬Abaka -‭ ‬Tiouraren Formation.

Size: About 21 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

CETIOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Centiosauridae

 

Genus: Cetiosaurus “Whale lizard”

Genus pronounced: See-e-oh-sore-us

Species: C.‭ ‬brevis,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬longus,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬medius,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬mogrebiensis,‭ ‬C.‭ ‬oxoniensis

Named by: Richard Owen – 1842

Classification: Family: Cetiosauridae

Time: Middle to Late Jurassic

Locality: England, France, Morocco

Size: 16 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Shunosaurus “Shu lizard”

Genus pronounced: Shu-no-sore-us

Species: S. lii (type)

Named by: Ding, Zhou, & Zhang – 1983

Classification: Family: Cetiosauridae

Time: Jurassic (Bathonian to Callovian)

Locality: China – Shangshaximiao Formation, Xiashaximiao Formation

Size: 9.5 to 10 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

MAMENCHISAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Family: Mamenchisauridae

Genus: Mamenchisaurus Mamenxi lizard

Genus pronounced: Ma-men-chi-sore-us.

Species:M. constructus (type),M. anyuensis, M. hochuanensis, M. jingyanensis, M. sinocanadorum, M. youngi.

Named by: C. C. Young – 1954.

Classification: Family: Mamanchisauridae

Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian)

Locality: China

Size: 35 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

DIPLODOCOIDS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Superfamily: Diplodocoidea

Genus: Apatosaurus “deceptive lizard”

Genus pronounced: A-pat-oh-sore-us

Species: E. ajax (type), A. louisae

Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1877

Classification: Family: Diplodocidae – Tribe: Apatosaurinae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian)

Locality: USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Oklahoma,‭ ‬Utah and Wyoming

Size: 20 to 23 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Brontosaurus “thunder lizard”

Genus pronounced: Bron-toe-sore-us

Species: B. excelsus (type), B. parvus, B. yahnahpin

Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1879

Classification: Family: Diplodocidae – Tribe: Apatosaurinae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Locality: USA‭ ‬-‭ ‬Morrison Formation deposits in Wyoming and Utah

Size: 21 to 22 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Diplodocus “double beam”

Genus pronounced: Dip-low-doe-cus

Species: D. longus (type), D. hayi, D. hallorum

Named by: Othniel Charles Marsh – 1878

Classification: Family: Diplodocidae – Tribe: Diplodocinae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian)

Locality: USA,‭ ‬Colorado,‭ ‬Montana,‭ ‬Utah,‭ ‬Wyoming‭ ‬-‭ ‬Morrison Formation.

Size: up to 33 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Rebbachisaurus “Rebbach lizard”

Genus pronounced: Reb-bok-e-sore-us

Species: R. garasbae (type), R. tamesnensis?

Named by: R. Lavocat – 1954

Classification: Family: Rebbachisauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Locality: Africa, Morocco – Aoufous Formation.

Size: 20 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Nigersaurus “lizard from Niger”

Genus pronounced: Nee-jer-sore-us

Species: N. taqueti (type)

Named by: Sereno,‭ ‬Beck,‭ ‬Dutheil,‭ ‬Larsson,‭ ‬Lyon,‭ ‬Moussa,‭ ‬Sadleir,‭ ‬Sidor,‭ ‬Varricchio,‭ ‬G.P.‭ ‬Wilson and J.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Wilson‭ ‬-‭ ‬1999

Classification: Family: Rebbachisauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Aptian or Albian)

Locality: Africa, Niger, Elrhaz Formation.

Size: 9 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Agustinia “Named after Agustin Martinelli, the discoverer

Genus pronounced: A-gus-tin-e-ah

Species: A. ligabuei (type)

Named by:  Jose Bonaparte ‬-‭ ‬1999

Classification: Superfamily: Diplodocoidea/Titanosauridae?

Time: Cretaceous (Aptian to Albian)

Locality: Argentina,‭ ‬Neuquen Province‭ ‬-‭ ‬Lohan Cura Formation

Size: 15 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Amargosaurus “Amarga lizard

Genus pronounced: A-mar-gah-sore-us

Species: N. taqueti (type)

Named by:  Leonardo Salgado‭ & ‬José Bonaparte‭ ‬-‭ ‬1991

Classification: Family: Dicraeosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Barremian to Aptian)

Locality: Argentina, Neuquen province – La Amarga Formation

Size: 10 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Bajadasaurus Bajada lizard

Genus pronounced: Ba-ha-da-sor-us

Species: B.‭ ‬pronuspinax‭ (‬type‭)‬

Named by: P.‭ ‬A.‭ ‬Gallina,‭ ‬S.‭ ‬Apesteguía,‭ ‬J.‭ ‬I.‭ ‬Canale‭ & ‬A.‭ ‬Haluza‭ ‬-‭ ‬2019.

Classification: Family: Dicraeosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Berriasian to Valanginian)

Locality: Argentina – Bajada Colorada Formation

Size: Uncertain meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

MACRONARIA

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Clade: Macronaria

 

Genus: Europasaurus “European lizard”

Genus pronounced: Yu-ro-pa-sore-us

Species: E. holgeri (type)

Named by: Mateus,‭ ‬Laven,‭ & ‬Knötschke vide Sander et al‭ ‬-‭ ‬2006

Classification: Clade: Camarasauromorpha

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Locality: Germany

Size: 6.2 to 10 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Camarasaurus “Chambered lizard”

Genus pronounced: Cam-ah-sore-us

Species: C. supremus (type), C. grandis, C. lentus

Named by: Edward Drinker Cope – 1877

Classification: Clade: Camarasauromorpha

Time: Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian)

Locality: USA,‭ ‬Wyoming,‭ ‬New Mexico,‭ ‬Colorado‭ & ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬Morrison Formation

Size: 15 to 23 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Brachiosaurus “arm lizard”

Genus pronounced: Brak-he-o-sore-us

Species: B. altithorax (type)

Named by: Elmer S. Riggs – 1903

Classification: Clade: Titanosauriformes – Family: Brachiosauridae

Time: Jurassic (Kimmeridgian)

Locality: USA,‭ Morrison Formation

Size: 26 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

TITANOSAURS

Kingdom: Animalia – Phylum: Chordata – Class: Reptilia – Clade: Dinosauria – Order: Saurischia – Suborder: Sauropodmorpha – Clade: Sauropoda – Clade: Macronaria – Clade: Titanosauriformes – Clade: Titanosauria

 

Genus: Paralititan “tidal titan”

Genus pronounced: Pah-ral-e-ty-tan

Species: P. stromeri (type)

Named by: Joshua B.‭ ‬Smith,‭ ‬Matthew C.‭ ‬Lamanna,‭ ‬Kenneth J.‭ ‬Lacovara,‭ ‬Peter Dodson,‭ ‬Jennifer R.‭ ‬Smith,‭ ‬Jason C.‭ ‬Poole,‭ ‬Robert Giegengack‭ & ‬Yousri Attia‭ ‬-‭ ‬2001

Classification: Clade: Titanosauria

Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Locality: Egypt – Bahariya Formation

Size: 26 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Alamosaurus “Alamo lizard”

Genus pronounced: Al-ah-moe-sore-us

Species: A. sanjuanensis (type)

Named by: Charles W. Gilmore – 1922

Classification: Family: Saltasauridea – Clade: Opisthocoelicaudiinae

Time: Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Locality: USA,‭ ‬New Mexico‭ ‬-‭ ‬Ojo Alamo Formation‭ (‬possibly part of the Kirtland Formation,‭ ‬Utah‭ ‬-‭ ‬North Horn Formation and Texas‭ ‬-‭ ‬Black Peaks Formation,‭ ‬El Picacho Formation and Javelina Formation

Size: 20 to 24 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Saltasaurus “Salta lizard”

Genus pronounced: Salt-ah-sore-us

Species: S. loricatus (type)

Named by: Bonaparte and Powell – 1980

Classification: Family: Saltasauridea

Time: Cretaceous (Campanian/Maastrichtian)

Locality: Argentina, Salta Province – Lecho Formation

Size: 12 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Argentinosaurus “Argentina lizard”

Genus pronounced: Ar-jen-teen-oh-sore-us

Species: A. huinculensis (type)

Named by: José Bonaparte‭ & ‬Rodolfo Coria‭ ‬-‭ ‬1993

Classification: Family: Antarctosauridae

Time: Cretaceous (Cenomanian)

Locality: Argentina, Huincul Formation

Size: 22-35 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Daxiatitan “Daxia titan”

Genus pronounced: Dax-e-ah-tie-tan

Species: D. binglingi (type)

Named by: H-L.‭ ‬You,‭ ‬D-Q Li,‭ ‬L-Q Zhou‭ & ‬Q Ji‭ ‬-‭ ‬2008

Classification: Superfamily: Titanosauroidea

Time: Early Cretaceous

Locality: China, Gansu Province

Size: 21 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Malawisaurus “Malawi lizard”

Genus pronounced: Ma-la-wee-sore-us

Species: M. dixeyi (type)

Named by: L. L. Jacobs, D. A. Winkler, W. R. Downs & E. M. Gomani – 1993

Classification: Superfamily: Titanosauroidea – Clade: Lithostrotia

Time: Cretaceous (Aptian)

Locality: Africa,‭ ‬Malawi – Dinosaur Beds Formation

Size: 16 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

Genus: Ampelosaurus “Vine lizard”

Genus pronounced: Am-pe-lo-sore-us.

Species: A. atacis (type)

Named by: Jean Le Loeuff‭ ‬-‭ ‬1995.

Classification: Clade: Titanosauria

Time: Cretaceous (Late Campanian to Early Maastrichtian)

Locality: France‭ ‬-‭ ‬Marnes Rouges Inférieures Formation.

Size: 16 meters long

Diet: Herbivore

 

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